Skip to main content

Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB,volume 715)

Abstract

Extracellular polysaccharides are as structurally and functionally diverse as the bacteria that synthesise them. They can be present in many forms, including cell-bound capsular polysaccharides, unbound “slime”, and as O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide, with an equally wide range of biological functions. These include resistance to desiccation, protection against nonspecific and specific host immunity, and adherence. Unsurprisingly then, much effort has been made to catalogue the enormous structural complexity of the extracellular polysaccharides made possible by the wide assortment of available monosaccharide combinations, non-carbohydrate residues, and linkage types, and to elucidate their biosynthesis and export. In addition, the work is driven by the commercial potential of these microbial substances in food, pharmaceutics and biomedical industries. Most recently, bacteria-mediated environmental restoration and bioleaching have been attracting much attention owing to their potential to remediate environmental effluents produced by the mining and metallurgy industries. In spite of technological advances in chemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques that allowed for considerable expansion of knowledge pertaining to the bacterial surface polysaccharides, current understanding of the mechanisms of synthesis and regulation of extracellular polysaccharides is yet to fully explain their structural intricacy and functional variability.

Keywords

  • Bacterial
  • Capsular polysaccharides
  • Extracellular polymeric substances
  • Polysaccharides

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-0940-9_13
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   179.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-007-0940-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   229.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Abu-Lail NI, Camesano TA (2003) Role of lipopolysaccharides in the adhesion, retention, and transport of Escherichia coli JM109. Env Sci Technol 37:2173–2183

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ahimou F, Semmens MJ, Haugstad G, Novak PJ (2007) Effect of protein, polysaccharide, and oxygen concentration profiles on biofilm cohesiveness. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2905–2910

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ashbaugh CD, Moser TJ, Shearer MH, White GL, Kennedy RC, Wessels MR (2000) Bacterial determinants of persistent throat colonization and the associated immune response in a primate model of human group a streptococcal pharyngeal infection. Cell Microbiol 2:283–292

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berry A, Devault JD, Chakrabarty AM (1989) High osmolarity is a signal for enhanced ALGD transcription in mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. J Bacteriol 171:2312–2317

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beveridge TJ, Fyfe WS (1985) Metal fixation by bacterial cell walls. Can J Earth Sci 22:1893–1898

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beveridge TJ, Graham LL (1991) Surface layers of bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 55:684–705

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Black S, Shinefield H, Fireman B, Lewis E, Ray P, Hansen JR, Elvin L, Ensor KM, Hackell J, Siber G, Malinoski F, Madore D, Chang I, Kohberger R, Watson W, Austrian R, Edwards K (2000) Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:187–195

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bogaert D, de Groot R, Hermans PWM (2004) Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis 4:144–154

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Briles DE, Novak L, Hotomi M, van Ginkel FW, King J (2005) Nasal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae includes subpopulations of surface and invasive pneumococci. Infect Immun 73:6945–6951

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bruno C, Yves F (2002) In situ characterization of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances by AFM. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 23:173–182

    Google Scholar 

  • Camesano TA, Logan BE (2000) Probing bacterial electrosteric interactions using atomic force microscopy. Env Sci Technol 34:3354–3362

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Caroff M, Karibian D (2003) Structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Carbohydr Res 338:2431–2447

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Caugant DA, Tzanakaki G, Kriz P (2007) Lessons from meningococcal carriage studies. FEMS Microbiol Rev 31:52–63

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cescutti P, Otto H, Patrick JB, Mark von I (2010) Bacterial capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides. Microbial glycobiology. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 93–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheng SS, Chittur KK, Sukenik CN, Culp LA, Lawrence K (1994) The Conformation of fibronectin on self-assembled monolayers with different surface composition:an FTIR/ATR study. J Colloid Interf Sci 162:135–143

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Costerton JW, Cheng KJ, Geesey GG, Ladd TI, Nickel JC, Dasgupta M, Marrie TJ (1987) Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Ann Rev Microbiol 41:435–464

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Costerton JW, Irvin RT, Cheng KJ (1981) The bacterial glycocalyx in nature and disease. Ann Rev Microbiol 35:299–324

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Costerton JW, Lewandowski Z, Caldwell DE, Korber DR, Lappin-Scott HM (2003) Microbial biofilms. Ann Rev Microbiol 49:711–745

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP (1999) Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284:1318–1322

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cywes C, Stamenkovic I, Wessels MR (2000) CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. J Clin Invest 106:995–1002

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • DeAngelis PL, White CL (2002) Identification and molecular cloning of a heparosan synthase from Pasteurella multocida type D. J Biol Chem 277:7209–7213

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Decho AW (1990) Microbial cxopolymcr secretions in ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanogr Marine Biol Ann Rev 28:73–153

    Google Scholar 

  • Decho AW (2000) Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview. Continent Shelf Res 20:1257–1273

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deng L, Kasper DL, Krick TP, Wessels MR (2000) Characterization of the linkage between the type III capsular polysaccharide and the bacterial cell wall of group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem 275:7497–7504

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Denkhaus E, Meisen S, Telgheder U, Wingender J (2007) Chemical and physical methods for characterisation of biofilms. Mikrochim Acta 158:1–27

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dolan-Livengood JM, Miller YK, Martin LE, Urwin R, Stephens DS (2003) Genetic basis for nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis. J Infect Dis 187:1616–1628

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dong C, Beis K, Nesper J, Brunkan-LaMontagne AL, Clarke BR, Whitfield C, Naismith JH (2006) Wza the translocon for E. coli capsular polysaccharides defines a new class of membrane protein. Nature 444:226–229

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Donlan RM (2002) Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces. Emerg Infect Dis 8:881–890

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Favre-Bonte S, Joly B, Forestier C (1999) Consequences of reduction of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression on interactions of this bacterium with epithelial cells. Infect Immun 67:554–561

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Flemming HC (1995) Biofouling und biokorrosion – die folgen unerwünschter biofilme. Chem Ingnieur Technik 67:1425–1430

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Flemming HC, Wingender J (2001) Relevance of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) – part I: structural and ecological aspects. Water Sci Technol 43:1–8

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher M (1996) Bacterial attachment in aquatic environments: a diversity of surfaces and adhesion strategies. In: Fletcher M (ed) Bacterial adhesion: molecular and ecological diversity. Wiley-Liss, New York, NY, pp 1–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Gadd GM (2010) Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation. Microbiology 156:609–643

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grados O, Ewing W (1970) Antigenic relationship between Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. J Infect Dis 122:100–103

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haisch C, Niessner R (2007) Visualisation of transient processes in biofilms by optical coherence tomography. Water Res 41:2467–2472

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Head IM, Jones DM, Roling WFM (2006) Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil. Nat Rev Micro 4:173–182

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoge CW, Schwartz B, Talkington DF, Breiman RF, Macneill EM, Englender SJ (1993) The changing epidemiology of invasive group-A Streptococcal infections and the emergence of Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome – a retrospective population-based study. JAMA 269:1638–1638

    Google Scholar 

  • Howell C, Diesner M-O, Grunze M, Koelsch P (2008) Probing the extracellular matrix with sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy. Langmuir 24:13819–13821

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • James ML, Andrew JM (2005) Bioremediation: prospects for the future application of innovative applied biological research. Ann Appl Biol 146:217–221

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport MS (eds) (2001) Immunobiology. Garland, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Jansson P-E (1999) The chemistry of the polysaccharide chains in bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In: Brade H, Opal SM, Vogel SM, Morrison DC (eds) Endotoxin in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp 155–178

    Google Scholar 

  • Jayaratne P, Keenleyside WJ, MacLachlan PR, Dodgson C, Whitfield C (1993) Characterization of rcsB and rcsC from Escherichia coli O9:K30:H12 and examination of the role of the rcs regulatory system in expression of group I capsular polysaccharides. J Bacteriol 175:5384–5394

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaul R, McGeer A, Low DE, Green K, Schwartz B, Simor AE (1997) Population-based surveillance for group A streptococcal necrotizing fascitis: clinical features, prognostic indicators, and microbiologic analysis of seventy-seven cases. Am J Med 103:18–24

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kenne L, Lindberg B (1983) Bacterial polysaccharides. Academic, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Lipsitch M, O‘Hagan JJ (2007) Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them. J Royal Soc Interf 4:787–802

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y-G, Zhou M, Zeng G-M, Wang X, Li X, Fan T, Xu W-H (2008) Bioleaching of heavy metals from mine tailings by indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: effects of substrate concentration. Bioresour Technol 99:4124–4129

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mangold S, Harneit K, Rohwerder T, Claus G, Sand W (2008) Novel Combination of atomic force microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy for visualization of leaching bacteria on pyrite. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:410–415

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mayer C, Moritz R, Kirschner C, Borchard W, Maibaum R, Wingender J, Flemming H-C (1999) The role of intermolecular interactions: studies on model systems for bacterial biofilms. Int J Biol Macromol 26:3–16

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moranta D, Regueiro V, March C, Llobet E, Margareto J, Larrate E, Garmendia J, Bengoechea JA (2009) Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide impedes the expression of β-defensins by airway epithelial cells. Infect Immun 78:1135–1146

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moxon R, Bayliss C, Hood D (2006) Bacterial contingency loci: the role of simple sequence DNA repeats in bacterial adaptation. Ann Rev Genet 40:307–333

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nesper J, Hill CMD, Paiment A, Harauz G, Beis K, Naismith JH, Whitfield C (2003) Translocation of group 1 capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli serotype K30. J Biol Chem 278:49763–49772

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Omoike A, Chorover J (2004) Spectroscopic study of extracellular polymeric substances from Bacillus subtilis: aqueous chemistry and adsorption effects. Biomacromolecules 5:1219–1230

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ong JL, Chittur KK, Lucas LC (1994) Dissolution/reprecipitation and protein adsorption studies of calcium phosphate coatings by FT-IR/ATR techniques. J Biomed Mater Res 28:1337–1346

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ophir T, Gutnick DL (1994) A role for exopolysaccharides in the protection of microorganisms from desiccation. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:740–745

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ørskov F, Ørskov I (1991) Complex formation between Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide O antigen and capsular K antigen as detected by immunoelectrophoresis. APMIS 99:615–619

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pal A, Paul A (2008) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances: central elements in heavy metal bioremediation. Ind J Microbiol 48:49–64

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pan YJ, Fang HC, Yang HC, Lin TL, Hsieh PF, Tsai FC, Keynan Y, Wang JT (2008) Capsular polysaccharide synthesis regions in Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K57 and a new capsular serotype. J Clin Microbiol 46:2231–2240

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Papa R, Parrilli E, Sannia G (2009) Engineered marine antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: a promising micro-organism for the bioremediation of aromatic compounds. J Appl Microbiol 106:49–56

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pickard D, Li JL, Roberts M, Maskell D, Hone D, Levine M, Dougan G, Chatfield S (1994) Characterization of defined OMPR mutants of Salmonella Typhi-OMPR is involved in the regulation of VI polysaccharide expression. Infect Immun 62:3984–3993

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pradhan N, Pradhan SK, Nayak BB, Mukherjee PS, Sukla LB, Mishra BK (2008) Micro-Raman analysis and AFM imaging of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans biofilm grown on uranium ore. Res Microbiol 159:557–561

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Quintero EJ, Langille SE, Weiner RM (2001) The polar polysaccharide capsule of Hyphomonas adhaerens MHS-3 has a strong affinity for gold. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1–4

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rawlings DE, Johnson DB (2007) The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia. Microbiology 153:315–324

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Regueiro V, Campos MA, Pons J, Alberti S, Bengoechea JA (2006) The uptake of a klebsiella pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide mutant triggers an inflammatory response by human airway epithelial cells. Microbiology 152:555–566

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roberson EB, Firestone MK (1992) Relationship between desiccation and exopolysaccharide production in a soil Pseudomonas sp. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1284–1291

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts IS (1996) The biochemistry and genetics of capsular polysaccharide production in bacteria. Ann Rev Microbiol 50:285–315

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson L, Kuenen J (2006) The genus Thiobacillus. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer K-H, Stackebrandt E (eds) The Prokaryotes. Springer, New York, pp 812–827

    Google Scholar 

  • Rohwerder T, Gehrke T, Kinzler K, Sand W (2003) Bioleaching review part A. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:239–248

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Romaní A, Fund K, Artigas J, Schwartz T, Sabater S, Obst U (2008) Relevance of polymeric matrix enzymes during biofilm formation. Microb Ecol 56:427–436

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rougeaux H, Talaga P, Carlson RW, Guezennec J (1998) Structural studies of an exopolysaccharide produced by Alteromonas macleodii subsp. fijiensis originating from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Carbohydr Res 312:53–59

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmid T, Burkhard J, Yeo B-S, Zhang W, Zenobi R (2008) Towards chemical analysis of nanostructures in biofilms I: imaging of biological nanostructures. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1899–1905

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sheng H, Lim JY, Watkins MK, Minnich SA, Hovde CJ (2008) Characterization of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-Antigen deletion mutant and effect of the deletion on bacterial persistence in the mouse intestine and colonization at the bovine terminal rectal mucosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5015–5022

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shu HY, Fung CP, Liu YM, Wu KM, Chen YT, Li LH, Liu TT, Kirby R, Tsai SF (2009) Genetic diversity of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Microbiology 155:4170–4183

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh P, Cameotra SS (2004) Enhancement of metal bioremediation by use of microbial surfactants. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 319:291–297

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sørensen UBS, Henrichsen J, Chen H-C, Szu SC (1990) Covalent linkage between the capsular polysaccharide and the cell wall peptidoglycan of Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed by immunochemical methods. Microb Pathog 8:325–334

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Strauss J, Burnham NA, Camesano TA (2009) Atomic force microscopy study of the role of LPS O-antigen on adhesion of E. coli. J Mol Recogn 22:347–355

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sutherland IW (2001) Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbiology 147:3–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tomlinson S (1993) Complement defense mechanisms. Curr Opin Immunol 5:83–89

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Troy FA, Frerman FE, Heath EC (1971) Biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharide in Aerobacter aerogenes. J Biol Chem 246:118–133

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Valenzuela L, Chi A, Beard S, Orell A, Guiliani N, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Jerez CA (2006) Genomics, metagenomics and proteomics in biomining microorganisms. Biotechnol Adv 24:197–211

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van Nhieu GT, Clair C, Bruzzone R, Mesnil M, Sansonetti P, Combettes L (2003) Connexin-dependent inter-cellular communication increases invasion and dissemination of Shigella in epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol 5:720–726

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner M, Ivleva NP, Haisch C, Niessner R, Horn H (2009) Combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Raman microscopy (RM): investigations on EPS – matrix. Water Res 43:63–76

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Watanabe M, Shiba H, Sasaki K, Nakashimada Y, Nishio N (1998) Promotion of growth and flocculation of a marine photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodovulum sp. by metal cations. Biotechnol Lett 20:1109–1112

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weinberger DM, Trzcinski K, Lu YJ, Bogaert D, Brandes A, Galagan J, Anderson PW, Malley R, Lipsitch M (2009) Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence. Plos Pathog 5:e1000476

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wessels MR, Bronze MS (1994) Critical role of the group A streptococcal capsule in pharyngeal colonization and infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:12238–12242

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Whitfield C, Valvano MA (1993) Biosynthesis and expression of cell-surface polysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria. Adv Microb Physiol 35:135–246

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wolf G, Crespo JG, Reis MAM (2002) Optical and spectroscopic methods for biofilm examination and monitoring. Re Environ Sci Biotechnol 1:227–251

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Woodward R, Yi W, Li L, Zhao G, Eguchi H, Sridhar PR, Guo H, Song JK, Motari E, Cai L, Kelleher P, Liu X, Han W, Zhang W, Ding Y, Li M, Wang PG (2010) In vitro bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis: defining the functions of Wzy and Wzz. Nat Chem Biol 6:418–423

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xi C, Marks D, Schlachter S, Luo W, Boppart SA (2006) High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biofilm development using optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt 11:034001–034006

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yazdankhah SP, Caugant DA (2004) Neisseria meningitidis: an overview of the carriage state. J Med Microbiol 53:821–832

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elena P. Ivanova .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Bazaka, K., Crawford, R.J., Nazarenko, E.L., Ivanova, E.P. (2011). Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides. In: Linke, D., Goldman, A. (eds) Bacterial Adhesion. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 715. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0940-9_13

Download citation