Biogas Production of Pig Manure with Water Hyacinth Juice from Batch Anaerobic Digestion

  • Nguyen Vo Chau NganEmail author
  • Le Hoang Viet
  • Nguyen Dac Cu
  • Nguyen Huu Phong
Part of the Advances in Global Change Research book series (AGLO, volume 45)


Anaerobic digestion, a series of processes in which micro-organisms break down biodegradable materials in the absence of oxygen, is normally used for wastewater treatment and energy production. Anaerobic digestion has been applied to hog – wastewater treatment and biogas production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, where a high percentage of the population works in the agricultural sector. However, the supply of pig manure for operating the anaerobic digesters is not always available. Therefore, to stimulate the application and operation of anaerobic digesters that are very significant to water-pollution prevention in the Mekong Delta, there is a need to find supplemental inputs to pig manure to help maintain the operation of the digesters.

The aim of our research was to find out the yield of biogas produced from batch anaerobic digestion by using water hyacinth (WH) – a plant commonly grown in the canal networks in the Mekong Delta – as a supplemental source to pig manure in biogas digesters. We conducted experiments using 50 L plastic bags of pig manure (PM) mixed with three different types of WH (C1, WH juice after 2 days of hydrolysis; C2, WH juice after 2 days of hydrolysis  +  chopped WH; and C3, WH juice after 2 days of hydrolysis  +  crushed WH). Based upon the organic dry matter (ODM) of input sources, we set up 13 experiments (with three replicates for each experiment) of 100% PM; 75% PM  +  25% WH; 50% PM  +  50% WH; 25% PM  +  75% WH; and 100% WH. The produced biogas volume was recorded daily while other parameters of pH, buffer capacity, biogas components (CH4, CO2, O2, and H2S) were recorded once daily for 7 consecutive days during the 35 day period.

According to our experimental conditions, the various preparations of WH showed differences in gas production. The gas production from experiments with C2 and C3 was not significantly different. Meanwhile, the gas production from experiments with C1 and C2 was significantly different.

With respect to C2 treatments, on the one hand, the total gas production tended to be higher in the treatments with high percentages of WH (231 L, 315 L, 392 L, 358 L, and 439 L in the treatment of 100% PM; 75% PM  +  25% WH; 50% PM  +  50% WH; 25% PM  +  75% WH; and 100% WH, respectively). On the other hand, total biogas yield per kg ODM of input materials reached the highest value in the treatment of 50% PM  +  50% WH (122 L, 148 L, 176 L, 153 L, and 171 L in the treatment of 100% PM; 75% PM  +  25% WH; 50%PM  +  50% WH; 25% PM  +  75% WH; and 100% WH, respectively).

These results strongly confirm that the farmers in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam can use water hyacinth as a potential supplement to pig manure in anaerobic digestion in case they do not have enough pig manure for their anaerobic-digestion treatment systems.


Batch-type system Biogas production Mekong Delta VACB farming system Water hyacinth 



This study was kindly supported by the project “Production of feedstuffs and renewable energy from water hyacinths in Vietnam, VIE/020-WH” funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg. Thanks to this project, we have more opportunities for further research on the use of WH as an additional input material for biogas digesters.

We would like to thank all members of the Department of Environmental Engineering, Cantho University, who helped with field sampling and lab work, including N. T. Thanh and H. L. Toan. Our thanks should go to Ms. Catherine Mertz and Ms. Kieu for their help with the administration work of the VIE/020-WH project. We are also indebted to Dr. D. N. Quynh and V. H. Nam for fruitful discussions which gave us a good chance to clarify our thinking regarding the interpretation of outcomes of the biogas experiments.


  1. Chanakya HN, Borgaonkar Sushama, Rajan MGC, Wahi M (1992) Two-phase anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth or urban garbage. Bioresour Technol 42:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ganesh PS, Ramasamy EV, Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA (2005) Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions. Biochem Eng J 27:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gerardi MH (2003) The microbiology of anaerobic digesters. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Joachim C (2008) Control process – pH, buffer capacity and high added as buffer substances. Reports, Cantho University, Cantho, VietnamGoogle Scholar
  5. Kivaisi AK, Mtila M (1998) Production of biogas from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart) (Solms) in a two-stage bioreactor. World J Microbiol 14:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Malik MK, Singh UK, Ahmad N (1990) Batch digester studies on biogas production from Cannabis sativa, water hyacinth mixed with dung and crop wastes and poultry litter. Biol Waste 31:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Nguyen Van Man (2008) Vuon – Ao – Chuong: the Traditional Vietnamese Farm. Accessed 22 April 2009
  8. Philipp O, Koch W, Köser H (1983) Utilization and control of water hyacinth in Sudan. German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), EschbornGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Vo Chau Ngan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Le Hoang Viet
    • 1
  • Nguyen Dac Cu
    • 1
  • Nguyen Huu Phong
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Environment and Natural ResourcesCan Tho UniversityCan ThoVietnam
  2. 2.VIE/020 Hyacinth ProjectCan Tho UniversityCan ThoVietnam

Personalised recommendations