Cultivation of cotton for the fibre perhaps marked the beginning of human civilization. The term cotton refers to four species of the genus Gossypium, G. arboreum, G. herbaceum, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The chromosome number of Gossypium sp. is n=13, and different genome groups from A-F have been identified (Stewart, 2001). Cotton is also commercially important as an oil crop as the cottonseed contains about 17% oil and 24% protein. The produce after oil extraction is concentrated into protein rich oil cake, which is used as livestock feed. China is the largest producer of cotton followed by USA, India, Pakistan and former Soviet Union. However, Israel ranks first in productivity (1706 kg/ha) followed by Australia, Syria, Turkey, Spain and China, all of which produce more than 1000 kg/ha. Low productivity in other parts of the world is mainly due to major biotic stresses, including viral diseases. Cotton cultivation is affected by several begomo-, ilar- and luteoviruses (Table 29.1). Most devastating of these are the begomoviruses causing diseases in major cotton growing areas of the world.


Coat Protein Gene Cotton Leaf Tobacco Streak Virus Whitefly Population Paecilomyces Lilacinus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. G. Malathi
    • 1
  • G. Radhakrishnan
    • 1
  • A. Varma
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Centre for Plant VirologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNewDelhiIndia

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