Ever since the re-emergence of national interest in Civics and Citizenship Education (CCE) in Australia in the late 1980s, there have been debates about its scope, purpose, and what pedagogical practices should be developed in schools. There has also been increasing recognition internationally that young people must be actively involved and empowered as citizens
(Torney-Purta, Schwille, & Amadeo, 1999, p.30) through CCE programmes. Educators acknowledge that the pedagogies utilised to develop civic students knowledge and capacities will make a difference to what students learn and the success of the programmes (Holdsworth, et al., 2000; Kennedy, 2001a, 2003; Westheimer & Kahne, 2004; Saha, Print & Edwards 2005). Choules and Down (2006, p.16) argued that social educators must see themselves as ‘cultural workers’ (Lather, 1991) who
... Understand the moral, ethical and political dimensions of curriculum decisions. This means reconceptualising our work in ways that: treat students as knowing agents; question how knowledge is produced and distributed; and make knowledge meaningful.