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Flood Hazard and Risk Assessment Using GIS and Remote Sensing in Fogera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia

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Abstract

Flood is a natural disaster. However human activities in many circumstances change flood behavior. The objective of this study was to assess flood hazard and risk of Fogera woreda (district), which is one of the most severely flood affected areas in Ethiopia in general and Ribb–Gumara Catchment in particular, using Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Land use/land cover change detection was done for the catchment using the 1973, 1985 and 1999 Landsat images and the general trend showed that vegetative and grassland areas were mainly changed to agricultural lands. Comparison between long year (1974–2006) annual maximum daily rainfall and annual maximum daily gauge levels (1971–2005) data of Ribb and Gumara Rivers showed that rainfall slightly decreases while gauge level increases, and this can be attributed to land cover conversion especially in the upper catchment. Flood frequency analysis was done using Ribb and Gumara Rivers annual maximum daily gauge levels by Gumbel’s, and the likely flood levels in different return periods were found. Digital elevation models (DEM) and the 100 year return period base-flood were combined in the GIS environment in order to produce flood inundation maps. More over, flood causative factors were developed in the GIS and remote sensing environment and weighted and overlaid in the principle of pair-wise comparison and Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE) technique in order to arrive at flood hazard and risk mapping. The major findings of the study from both the two methods revealed that most of the areas in the downstream part of the catchment and the different land uses in these areas were within high to very high flood hazard and risk level. The presence of risk assessment mapping will help the concerned authorities to formulate their development strategies according to the available risk to the area.

Keywords

  • Flood risk
  • MCE
  • GIS
  • Remote sensing
  • Flood frequency
  • Land use/land cover dynamics

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Correspondence to Woubet Gashaw .

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© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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Gashaw, W., Legesse, D. (2011). Flood Hazard and Risk Assessment Using GIS and Remote Sensing in Fogera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. In: Melesse, A.M. (eds) Nile River Basin. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0689-7_9

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