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Hydrological Variability and Climate of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin

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Abstract

This chapter discusses the hydrometeorology, land use, soils, topography, agroecological zones, extreme flows, climatic variability and climatic teleconnections of the upper Blue Nile River basin. The basin has a varied topography, rainfall and temperature resulting in different agroclimatic zones. Spatial distribution of annual rainfall over the basin shows high variation with the southern tip receiving as high as 2,049 mm and the northeastern tip as low as 794 mm annual average rainfall. The analysis of the basin’s river flow and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index connectivity indicates that the upper Blue Nile River basin rainfall and flows are teleconnected to the ENSO index. Based on event correspondence analysis, high rainfall and high flows are likely to occur during La Niña years and dry years are likely to occur during El Niño years at a confidence level of 90%. Low and high flow analysis for selected tributaries and flow at the Blue Nile River flow shows different recurrence intervals of the high and low flows.

Keywords

  • Blue Nile River basin
  • Rainfall frequency analysis
  • Climatic teleconnections
  • ENSO
  • Lake Tana
  • Blue Nile River flow

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Correspondence to Assefa M. Melesse .

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Melesse, A.M., Abtew, W., Setegn, S.G., Dessalegne, T. (2011). Hydrological Variability and Climate of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin. In: Melesse, A.M. (eds) Nile River Basin. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0689-7_1

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