Fully Differential Operational Amplifiers

  • Johan HuijsingEmail author


As the supply and signal voltages go down to lower values from 30, 12, 5, 3, 2, and finally 1 V, the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio becomes increasingly worse. An important way to cope with this problem is to use fully differential signal paths. The differential peak-to-peak signal then becomes maximally twice the total supply voltage V S = V SP V SN . But even more important will be that the influence of substrate interference on the two balanced signals will largely cancel one another. All kinds of amplifiers, filters, sigma-delta converters, and other circuits using fully differential OpAmps may thus be designed in a fully balanced or differential way.


  1. 8.1
    T.C. Choi et al., High-frequency CMOS switched-capacitor filters for communications applications. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. SC-18(6), 652–664 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 8.2
    R. Hogervorst, J.H. Huijsing, Design of Low-Voltage Low-Power Operational Amplifier Cells (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1996), pp. 195–203Google Scholar
  3. 8.3
    G. Nebel, U. Kleine, H.J. Pfleiderer, Large bandwidth BiCMOS operational amplifiers for SC-video-applications, in Proceedings of ISCAS, 1994, pp. 5.85–5.88Google Scholar
  4. 8.4
    J.H. Huijsing et al., Low-power low-voltage VLSI operational amplifier cells. IEEE Trans. Circ. Sys. I, Fundam. Theory Appl. 42(11), 841–852 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 8.5
    K. Bult, G.J.G.M. Geelen, A fast-settling CMOS op amp for SC circuits with 90-dB DC gain. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. 25(6), 1379–1383 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 8.6
    J.N. Babanezhad, A low-output-impedance fully differential op amp with large output swing and continuous-time common-mode feedback. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. 26(12), 1825–1833 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 8.7
    S. Pernici, G. Nicolini, R. Castello, A CMOS low-distortion fully differential power amplifier with double nested Miller compensation. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. 28(7), 758–763 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mathematics and Computer Sciences (EEMCS)Delft University of TechnologyDelftNetherlands

Personalised recommendations