This chapter describes a number of general applications suitable for quantifying the requirements of universal active devices or Operational Amplifiers. The transfer of each example is described by a matrix containing, firstly, one or more nominal values, and secondly, error terms having low values. The nominal values are determined by the circuit configuration and by the gain-setting passive components in the circuit. The error terms are determined by the non-idealities of the active devices as discussed in Chap. 2.
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