• Johan HuijsingEmail author


The qualities of the universal active devices mentioned in Chap. 1 can be specified by their macromodels or equivalent circuits and by transfer matrices. These representations should contain all elements for quantifying the four qualities of gain, offset, and if applicable, the bias current of input and output ports. Macromodels may also include the HF parameters and non-linear effects.


Output Port Operational Amplifier Voltage Gain Input Stage Spice Simulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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    J.A. Connelly, Analog Integrated Circuits (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1975)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mathematics and Computer Sciences (EEMCS)Delft University of TechnologyDelftNetherlands

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