The qualities of the universal active devices mentioned in Chap. 1 can be specified by their macromodels or equivalent circuits and by transfer matrices. These representations should contain all elements for quantifying the four qualities of gain, offset, and if applicable, the bias current of input and output ports. Macromodels may also include the HF parameters and non-linear effects.
KeywordsOutput Port Operational Amplifier Voltage Gain Input Stage Spice Simulation
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