The Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in Asia: The World’s Most Widely Cultured Alien Crustacean

Part of the Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology book series (INNA, volume 6)


The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is native to the western Pacific coast of Latin America, from Peru to Mexico where water temperatures are normally over 20oC throughout the year. It was introduced into Asia experimentally from 1978 to 1979, but commercially only since 1996 into Taiwan and China and subsequently to several countries in southeast and south Asia. In 2008, 67% of the world production of cultured penaeid shrimp (3,399,105 mt) consisted of L. vannamei (2,259,183 mt). Such dominance was attributed to an 18-fold increase of production in Asia, from 93,648 mt in 2001 to 1,823,531 mt in 2008, which accounts for 82% of the total world production of L. vannamei. The commercial success of introducing L. vannamei into Asia can be attributed to its superior aquaculture traits compared with Penaeus monodon, the most popular cultured Asian penaeid. These include higher availability of genetically selected viral-pathogen-free domesticated broodstock, high larval survival, faster growth rate, better tolerance to high stocking density, lower dietary protein requirement, more efficient utilization of plant proteins in formulated diets, stronger adaptability to low salinity, better tolerance to ammonia and nitrite toxicity, and lower susceptibility to serious viral pathogens infecting P. monodon. China leads the world cultured L. vannamei production from 33% in 2001 to 47% in 2008 (1,062,765 mt), among which 51% (542,632 mt) were produced in inland freshwater ponds. The culture of L. vannamei in freshwater is expected to continue increasing in China, Thailand, and other countries in Asia due to higher profits compared to other freshwater aquaculture species, and higher land availability in inland than in coastal areas. Although Taura Syndrome Virus, the most economically significant viral pathogen of L. vannamei is not reported to be detrimental to aquaculture production in Asia nor have affected indigenous cultured or wild shrimp populations, precautionary measures have been advocated or enforced by government authorities and executed by some private sectors. Potential problems that can affect future Asian production of L. vannamei include: decreasing genetic diversity through domestication and selection; increasing trans-boundary movements between continents and within the Far East; and emergence of new and Asian-specific viral and other microbial diseases. These potential problems will require Asian governments to take preventive measures through legislative control as well as scientific and technical measures.


  1. Angel DL, Fiedler U, Eden N, Kress N, Adelung D, Herut B (1999) Catalase activity in macro- and microorganisms as an indicator of biotic stress in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Helgoland Mar Res 53:209–218Google Scholar
  2. Araneda M, Perez EP, Gasca-Leyva E (2008) White shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture in freshwater at three densities: condition state based on length and weight. Aquaculture 283:13–18Google Scholar
  3. Bray WA, Lawrence AL, Leung-Trujillo JR (1994) The effect of salinity on growth and survival of Penaues vannamei, with observation on interaction of IHHN virus and salinity. Aquaculture 122:133–146Google Scholar
  4. Briggs M, Funge-Smith S, Subasinghe RP, Phillips M (2004) Introductions and movement of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris in Asia and the Pacific. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, pp 1–12, RAP publication 2004/10Google Scholar
  5. Briggs M, Funge-Smith S Subasinghe RP, Phillips M (2005) Introductions and movement of two penaeid shrimp species in Asia and the Pacific. Fisheries Technical Paper 476:78pp. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Budhiman AA, Paryanti TS, Sunaryanto A (2005) The present status of Penaeus vannamei and other exotic shrimp culture in Indonesia. In: SEAFDEC The report of the regional technical consultation on the aquaculture of P. vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, pp 42–49, 1–2 March 2005Google Scholar
  7. Carbajal-Sanchez IS, Castro-Longoria R, Grijalva-Chon JM (2008) Experimental white spot syndrome virus challenge of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) at different salinities. Aquacult Res 39:1588–1596Google Scholar
  8. Castille FL Jr, Lawrence AL (1981) The effect of salinity on the osmotic, sodium, and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph of euryhaline shrimp of the genus Penaeus. Comp Biochem Physiol A 68:75–80Google Scholar
  9. Cavalli LS, Nornberg BFS, Netto SA, Poersch L, Romano LA, Marins LF, Abreu PC (2010) White spot syndrome virus in wild penaeid shrimp caught in coastal and offshore waters in the southern Atlantic Ocean. J Fish Dis 33:533–536Google Scholar
  10. Chapman RW, Browdy CL, Savin S, Prior S, Wenner E (2004) Sampling and evaluation of white spot syndrome virus in commercially important Atlantic penaeid shrimp stocks. Dis Aquat Organ 59:179–185Google Scholar
  11. Chemonics (2002) Subsector assessment of the Nigerian shrimp and prawn industry. Chemonics International Inc., Agricultural Development Assistance in Nigeria. United States Agency for International Development, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng KM, Hu CQ, Liu YN, Zheng SX, Qi XJ (2005) Dietary magnesium requirement and physiological responses of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity water. Aquacult Nutr 11:385–393Google Scholar
  13. Cheng KM, Hu CQ, Liu YN, Zheng SX, Qi XJ (2006) Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and calcium/phosphorus ratio on the growth and tissue mineralization of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low-salinity water. Aquaculture 251:472–483Google Scholar
  14. Chiang P, Liao IC (1985) The practice of grass prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in Taiwan from 1968 to 1984. J World Maricult Soc 16:297–315Google Scholar
  15. Chien YH, Liao IC (1995) Integrated approach to prawn growout system design. In: Browdy C, Hopkins S (eds) Swimming through troubled water. Proc. special session on shrimp farming. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, pp 167–182Google Scholar
  16. Chien YH, Pan CH, Hunter H (2003) The resistance to physical stresses by Penaeus monodon juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin. Aquaculture 216:177–191Google Scholar
  17. Chou HY, Huang CY, Wang CH, Chiang HC, Lo CF (1995) Pathogenicity of a baculovirus infection causing white spot syndrome virus in cultured penaeid shrimp in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Organ 23:165–173Google Scholar
  18. Cuzon G, Lawrence A, Gaxiola G, Rosas C, Guillaume J (2004) Nutrition of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in tanks or in ponds. Aquaculture 235:513–551Google Scholar
  19. De Donato M, Manrique R, Ramirez R, Mayer L, Howell C (2005) Mass selection and inbreeding effects on a cultivated strain of Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in Venezuela. Aquaculture 247:159–167Google Scholar
  20. Deutsch L, Gräslund S, Folke C, Troell M, Huitric M, Kautsky N, Lebel L (2007) Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environ Chang 17:238–249Google Scholar
  21. Diaz F, Farfan C, Sierra E, Re AD (2001) Effects of temperature and salinity fluctuation on the ammonium excretion and osmoregulation of juveniles of Penaeus vannamei, Boone. Mar Freshw Behav Physiol 34:93–104Google Scholar
  22. Esparza-Leal HM, Ponce-Palafox JT, Aragon-Noriega EA, Arredondo-Figueroa JL, Garcia-Ulloa GM, Valenzuela-Quinonez W (2010) Growth and performance of the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Boone) cultured in low-salinity water with different stocking densities and acclimation times. Aquacult Res 41:878–883Google Scholar
  23. Flegel TW (2006) Disease testing and treatment. In: Boyd CE, Jory D, Chamberlain GW (eds) Operating procedures for shrimp farming. Global shrimp OP survey results and recommendations. Global Aquaculture Alliance, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  24. Frías-Espericueta MG, Voltolina D, Osuna-López JI (2001) Acute toxicity of cadmium, mercury, and lead to Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 67:580–586Google Scholar
  25. Frías-Espericueta MG, Voltolina D, Osuna-López JI (2003) Acute toxicity of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese and of the mixtures copper–zinc and iron–manganese to Whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:68–74Google Scholar
  26. Funge-Smith S, Briggs M, Subasinghe R (2003) Is white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) a threat to Asian shrimp culture. FAO Aquac Newsl 30:19–23Google Scholar
  27. Gillet R (2008) Global study of shrimp fisheries. FAO Fish Tech Pap 475:331Google Scholar
  28. González-Félix ML, Perez-Velazquez M, Quintero-Alvarez JM, Davis A (2009) Effect of various dietary levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and different n-3/n-6 ratios on biological performance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, raised in low salinity. J World Aquac Soc 40:194–206Google Scholar
  29. Gozlan RE (2008) Introduction of non-native freshwater fish: is it all bad? Fish Fish 9:106–115Google Scholar
  30. Gozlan RE (2009) Biodiversity crisis and the introduction of non-native fish: solutions, not scapegoats. Fish Fish 10:109–110Google Scholar
  31. Green BW (2008) Stocking strategies for production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in amended freshwater in inland ponds. Aquacult Res 39:10–17Google Scholar
  32. Gross A, Abutbul S, Zilberg D (2004) Acute and chronic effects of nitrite on white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in low-salinity brackish water. J World Aquac Soc 35:315–321Google Scholar
  33. Gundermann N, Popper D (1975) Experiment in growing Penaeus merguiensis (de Man, 1888) in a fish pond in Fiji. Aquaculture 6:197–198Google Scholar
  34. Huang K, Wang W, Lu J (2003) Protein requirements in compounded diets for Penaeus vannamei juveniles. J Fish Sci China 10:318–324Google Scholar
  35. Huang K, Wang W, Lu J, Dai XW, Zhou JN (2004) Salinity effects on growth and biochemical composition of Penaeus vannamei. Mar Sci 28:20–25Google Scholar
  36. Hurtado MA, Racotta IS, Arjona O, Hernández-Rodríguez M, Goytortúa E, Civera R, Palacios E (2006) Effect of hypo- and hyper-saline conditions on osmolarity and fatty acid composition of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) fed low- and high-HUFA diets. Aquacult Res 37:1316–1326Google Scholar
  37. Hurtado MA, Racotta IS, Civera R, Ibarra L, Hernández-Rodríguez M, Palacios E (2007) Effect of hypo- and hypersaline conditions on osmolality and Na/K-ATPase activity in juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed low- and high-HUFA diets. Comp Biochem Physiol A 147:703–710Google Scholar
  38. ICES/FAO (2005) Indonesia. Review of bycatch in world shrimp trawl fisheries. Report of the ICES/FAO Working Group on Fishing Technology and Fish Behaviour, Rome, 18–22 April 2005Google Scholar
  39. INFOFISH (1994) China’s shrimp crop failure: the implications. INFOFISH Int 94(2):42–43Google Scholar
  40. Jimenez R, Barniol R, de Barniol L, Machuca M (2000) Periodic occurrence of epithelial viral necrosis outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei in Ecuador. Dis Aquat Organ 42:91–99Google Scholar
  41. Jory DE, Dixon HM (1999) White shrimp spot virus in the western hemisphere. Aquacult Magaz 25:83–91Google Scholar
  42. Le Moullac G, Damez D (1991) Modeling of resistance to salinity shocks of Penaeus vannamei postlarvae. Aquat Living Resour 4:169–173Google Scholar
  43. Li E, Chen L, Zeng C, Xuemin Chen X, Yu N, Lai Q, Qin JG (2007) Growth, body composition, respiration and ambient ammonia nitrogen tolerance of the juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at different salinities. Aquaculture 265:385–390Google Scholar
  44. Li E, Chen L, Zeng C, Yu N, Xiong Z, Chen X, Qin JG (2008a) Comparison of digestive and antioxidant enzymes activities, haemolymph oxyhemocyanin contents and hepatopancreas histology of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at various salinities. Aquaculture 274:80–86Google Scholar
  45. Li E, Xion Z, Chen L, Zeng C, Li K (2008b) Acute toxicity of boron to juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, at two salinities. Aquaculture 278:75–178Google Scholar
  46. Li CC, Yeh ST, Chen JC (2010) Innate immunity of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannameiweakened by the combination of a Vibrio alginolyticus injection and low-salinity stress. Fish Shellfish Immunol 28:121–127Google Scholar
  47. Liao IC (1988) Penaeus monodon culture in Taiwan: through two decades of growth. Int J Aquacult Fish Technol 1:16–24Google Scholar
  48. Liao IC, Chien YH (1994) Culture of kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus Bate) in Asia. World Aquac 25:18–33Google Scholar
  49. Liao IC, Huang TL, Katsutani K (1969) Summary of preliminary report on artificial propagation of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. JCRR Fish Ser 8:67–71 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Liao IC, Chien YH, Chao NS (2006) Science and art in penaeid aquaculture development – comparison between Eastern and Western Hemisphere. In: Tsai SL (ed) Healthy culture and genetic improvement in crustaceans. Proceedings of the 5th World Chinese symposium for the crustacean aquaculture held in Shanghai Fisheries University on 3–4 November 2006, Ocean Publishing Company, (in Chinese with English abstract) pp 1–13Google Scholar
  51. Lightner DV (1999) The penaeid shrimp virus TSV, IHHNV, WSSV, and YHV: current status in the Americas, available diagnosis methods, and management strategies. J Appl Aquacult 9:27–52Google Scholar
  52. Limhang K, Limsuwan C, Chuchird N (2005) A comparison of growth rate and production between rearing black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in low salinity water. The Proceedings of 43rd Kasesart University Annual Conference. Subject: Fisheries. p 420Google Scholar
  53. Lin YC, Chen JC (2001) Acute toxicity of ammonia on Litopenaeus vannamei Boone juveniles at different salinity levels. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 259:109–119Google Scholar
  54. Lin YC, Chen JC (2003) Acute toxicity of nitrite on Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) juveniles at different salinity levels. Aquaculture 224:193–201Google Scholar
  55. Liu CQ, Liu LJ, Zhang YJ, Wang JX (2007a) Effects of Ca2+/Mg2+ in brine water from saltworks on growth and activities of AKP and SOD in white legged shrimp. Fish Sci 26:67–69Google Scholar
  56. Liu Y, Wang WN, Wang AL, Wang JM, Sun RY (2007b) Effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) exposed to acute salinity changes. Aquaculture 265:351–358Google Scholar
  57. Lo CF, Leu JH, Chen CH, Peng SE, Chen YT, Chou CM, Yeh PY, Huang CJ, Hsin-Yiu Chou CH, Wang CH, Kou GH (1996a) Detection of baculovirus associated with white spot syndrome (WSBV) in penaeid shrimps using polymerase chain reaction. Dis Aquat Organ 25:133–141Google Scholar
  58. Lo CF, Ho CH, Peng SE, Chen CH, Hsu HC, Chiu YL, Chang CF, Liu KF, Su MS, Wang CH, Kou GH (1996b) White spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) detected in cultured and captured shrimp, crabs and other arthropods. Dis Aquat Organ 27:215–225Google Scholar
  59. Lotz JM, Soto MA (2002) Model of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) epidemics in Litopenaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ 50:199–209Google Scholar
  60. Lotz JM, Anton LS, Soto MA (2005) Effect of chronic Taura syndrome virus infection on salinity tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ 65:75–78Google Scholar
  61. McGraw WJ, Scarpa J (2004) Mortality of freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acclimation rate, habituation period, and ionic challenge. Aquaculture 236:285–296Google Scholar
  62. McGraw WJ, Davis DA, Teichert-Coddington D, Rouse DB (2002) Acclimation of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae to low salinity: influence of age, salinity endpoint, and rate of salinity reduction. J World Aquac Soc 33:78–84Google Scholar
  63. McIntosh D, Fitzsimmons K (2003) Characterization of effluent from an inland, low salinity shrimp farm: what contribution could this water make if used for irrigation. Aquacult Eng 27:147–156Google Scholar
  64. Menz A, Blake BF (1980) Experiments on the growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 48:99–111Google Scholar
  65. Merican Z (2009) End of the road for BT? No not yet! AQUA Culture Asia Pacific Magazine May/June:1Google Scholar
  66. Miao W (2005) Status of aquaculture of Penaeus vannamei in China, pp 84–90. In: SEAFDEC The report of the regional technical consultation on the aquaculture of P. vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, p. 99, 1–2 March 2005Google Scholar
  67. Nunan LM, Arce SM, Staha RJ, Lightner DV (2001) Prevalence of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Panama. J World Aquac Soc 32:330–334Google Scholar
  68. Ogle JT, Beaugez K, Lotz JM (1992) Effects of salinity on survival and growth of postlarval Penaeus vannamei. Gulf Res Rep 8:415–422Google Scholar
  69. OIE (2006) Manual of diagnostic tests for aquatic animals. Office International des Epizooties, ParisGoogle Scholar
  70. Özcan T, Galil BS, Bakır K, Katağan T (2006) The first record of the banana prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (De Man, 1888) (crustacea: decapoda: penaeidae) from the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Invas 1:286–288Google Scholar
  71. Palacios E, Bonilla A, Perez A, Racotta IS, Civera R (2004) Influence of highly unsaturated fatty acids on the responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae to low salinity. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 299:201–215Google Scholar
  72. Pan L, Jiang L (2002) The effect of sudden changes in salinity and pH on the immune activity of two species of shrimp. J Ocean Univ Qingdao 32:903–910Google Scholar
  73. Peng C, Zheng J, Peng W, He S, Tang T, Wang W (2002) The embryonic development of Penaeus vannamei and effect of temperature and salinity on embryonic development. J Shanghai Fish Univ 11:310–316Google Scholar
  74. Pérez Farfante I, Kensley B (1997) Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimp and prawns of the world-keys and diagnoses for the families and genera. Mem Mus Natn Hist Nat 175:1–233Google Scholar
  75. Perez-Velazquez M, González-Félix ML, Jaimes-Bustamente F, Martinez-Cordova LR, Trujillo-Villalba DA (2007) Investigation of the effects of salinity and dietary protein level on growth and survival of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. J World Aquac Soc 38:475–485Google Scholar
  76. Ponce-Palafox J, Martinez-Palacios CA, Ross LG (1997) The effects of salinity and temperature on the growth and survival rates of juvenile white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931. Aquaculture 157:105–113Google Scholar
  77. Rivera-Velázquez G, Soto LA, Salgado-Ugarte IH, Naranjo EJ (2008) Growth, mortality and migratory pattern of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Crustacea, Penaeidae) in the carretas-pereyra coastal lagoon system, Mexico. Revt Biol trop 56:523–33Google Scholar
  78. Robertson L, Lawrence AL, Castille F (1993) Interaction of salinity and feed protein level on growth of Penaeus vannamei. J Appl Aquacult 2:43–54Google Scholar
  79. Rosas C, Cuzon G, Gaxiola G (2001a) Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 259:1–22Google Scholar
  80. Rosas C, Lopez N, Mercado P (2001b) Effect of salinity acclimation on oxygen consumption of juveniles of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. J Crust Biol 21:912–922Google Scholar
  81. Rosenberry B (1990) Chinese shrimp farming and its problems. World Shrimp Farm 15:1–2Google Scholar
  82. Rosenberry B (2002) World shrimp farming 2002. Shrimp News International, San Diego, 276 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosenberry B (2004) World shrimp farming 2004. Shrimp News International, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  84. Roy LA, Davis DA, Saoud IP (2006) Effects of lecithin and cholesterol supplementation to practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity waters. Aquaculture 257:446–452Google Scholar
  85. Roy LA, Davis DA, Saoud IP, Henry RP (2007a) Effects of varying levels of aqueous potassium and magnesium on survival, growth, and respiration of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters. Aquaculture 262:461–469Google Scholar
  86. Roy LA, Davis DA, Saoud IP (2007b) Supplementation of potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters. Aquacult Nutr 13:104–113Google Scholar
  87. Roy LA, Davis DA, Nguyen TN (2009a) Supplementation of chelated magnesium to diets of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low-salinity waters of west Alabama. J World Aquac Soc 40:248–254Google Scholar
  88. Roy LA, Bordinhon A, Sookying D, Davis DA, Brown TW, Whitis GN (2009b) Demonstration of alternative feeds for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters of west Alabama. Aquacult Res 40:496–503Google Scholar
  89. Roy LA, Davis DA, Whitis GN (2009c) Pond-to-pond variability in post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, survival and growth in inland low-salinity waters of west Alabama. Aquacult Res 40:1823–1829Google Scholar
  90. Samocha TM, Guajardo H, Lawrence AL, Castille FL, FL SM, McKee DA, Page KI (1998a) A simple stress test for Penaeus vannamei postlarvae. Aquaculture 165:233–242Google Scholar
  91. Samocha TM, Lawrence AL, Pooser D (1998b) Growth and survival of juvenile Penaeus vannamei in low salinity water in a semi-closed recirculating system. ISR J Aquac-Bamidgeh 50:55–59Google Scholar
  92. Samocha TM, Hamper L, Emberson CR, Davis AD, McIntosh D, Lawrence AL, Van Wyk PM (2002) Review of some recent developments in sustainable shrimp farming practices in Texas, Arizona, and Florida. J Appl Aquacult 12:1–42Google Scholar
  93. Samocha TM, Lawrence AL, Collins CA, Castille FL, Bray WA, Davies CJ, Lee PG, Wood GF (2004) Production of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in high-density greenhouse-enclosed raceways using low salinity groundwater. J Appl Aquacult 15:1–19Google Scholar
  94. Sánchez-Barajas M, Liñán-Cabello MA, Mena-Herrera A (2009) Detection of yellow-head disease in intensive freshwater production systems of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult Internat 17:101–112Google Scholar
  95. Saoud IP, Davis DA (2005) Effects of betaine supplementation to feeds of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at extreme salinities. N Am J Aquacult 67:351–353Google Scholar
  96. Saoud IP, Davis DA, Rouse DB (2003) Suitability studies of inland well waters for Litopenaeus vannamei culture. Aquaculture 217:373–383Google Scholar
  97. SEAFDEC (2005) The report of the regional technical consultation on the aquaculture of P. vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines, p. 99, 1–2 March 2005Google Scholar
  98. Senapin S, Yhaowbut Y, Gangnonngiw W, Chuchird N, Sriurairatana S, Flegel TW (2010) Impact of yellow head virus outbreaks in the white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), in Thailand. J Fish Dis 33:421–430Google Scholar
  99. Shiau SY (1998) Nutrient requirements of penaeid shrimp. Aquaculture 164:77–93Google Scholar
  100. Shinoj P, Ganesh KB, Sathiadhas R, Datta KK, Muktha M, Singh SK (2008) Spatial price integration and price transmission among major fish markets in India. Agr Econ Res Rev 21:36–53Google Scholar
  101. Simõs Vitule JR, Freire CA, Simberloff D (2009) Introduction of non-native freshwater fish can certainly be bad. Fish Fish 10:98–108Google Scholar
  102. Song WY, Chang SM (2008) Introduction to culture technology of healthy Penaeus vannamei fry. The 6th World Chinese Symposium for the Crustacean Aquaculture, Guanzho, pp. 346–348, 9–12 December 2008Google Scholar
  103. Sowers AD, Tomasso JRJ (2006) Production characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity water augmented with mixed salts. J World Aquac Soc 37:214–217Google Scholar
  104. Taw N, Srisombat S, Chandaeng S (2002) L. vannamei trial in Indonesia. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(6):20–22Google Scholar
  105. Tien VD, Trieu V (2005) Shrimp culture in Vietnam. In: SEAFDEC The report of the regional technical consultation on the aquaculture of P. vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, pp. 81–83, 1–2 March 2005Google Scholar
  106. Tookwinas S, Chiyakum K, Somsueb S (2005) Aquaculture of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei in Thailand. In: SEAFDEC The report of the regional technical consultation on the aquaculture of P. vannamei and other exotic shrimps in Southeast Asia, Manila, Philippines, pp. 74–80,1–2 March 2005Google Scholar
  107. Treece GD, Fox JM (1993) Design, operation and training manual for an intensive culture shrimp hatchery, 1st edn. A & M University Sea Grant College, Texas, p 187Google Scholar
  108. Uma A, Koteeswaran A, Karunasagar I, Karasunagar I (2005) Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus and monodon baculovirus in Penaeus monodon broodstock and postlarvae from hatcheries in southeast coast of India. Curr Sci 89:1619–1622Google Scholar
  109. University of Florida/IFAS (UF/IFAS) (2003) Indian River Research and Education Center Aquaculture Advisory Subcommittee Newsletter 1(1): 4ppGoogle Scholar
  110. Vaseeharan B, Jayakumar R, Ramasamy P (2003) PCR-based detection of white spot syndrome virus in cultured and captured crustaceans in India. Lett Appl Microbiol 37:443–447Google Scholar
  111. Wang LU, Chen JC (2005) The immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio alginolyticus at different salinity levels. Fish Shellfish Immunol 18:269–278Google Scholar
  112. Wang YC, Lo CF, Chang PS, Kou GH (1998) Experimental infection of white spot baculovirus in some cultured and wild decapods in Taiwan. Aquaculture 164:221–231Google Scholar
  113. Wang X, Cao M, Ma S, Dong SL (2006) Effects of salinity on survival, growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Mar Fish Res 27:8–13Google Scholar
  114. Wu SC, Lu KY, Ton BF, Ho JJ (1965) Study on advanced spawning and indoor larval culture of Penaeid. Haiyan Kexua Jikan (Ocean science collection). Science Publication (in Chinese), 180–190Google Scholar
  115. Wyban J (2002) White shrimp boom continues. Global Aquaculture Advocate, pp 18–19, December 2002Google Scholar
  116. Yu CS, Yang CH, Huang MY (2002) Preliminary study of an adequate dietary protein level of juvenile white-leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in an indoor super-intensive recirculate culture system. J Taiwan Fish Res 10:1–6Google Scholar
  117. Yuan L, Cai S (2006) Effect of temperature and salinity on spermatophore regeneration and sperm quality in Litopenaeus vannamei. J Fish China 30:63–68Google Scholar
  118. Zang WL, Lin XC, Dai XL, Yao QZ, Jiang M, CF XuGR, Ding FJ (2003) Effects of desalination method and salinity on survival rate and growth of Penaeus vannamei juvenile. J Shanghai Fish Univ 12:308–312Google Scholar
  119. Zhang P, Zhang X, Li J, Gao T (2009) Effect of salinity on survival, growth, oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion of juvenile white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult Res 40:1419–1427Google Scholar
  120. Zhu CB, Dong SL, Zhang JD (2005) Effects of Na+/K+ ratio in K+ deficient low salinity saline water on the growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Periodic Ocean Univ China 35:772–778Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AquacultureNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations