An Evidence-based Perspective of Ganoderma Lucidum (Lucid Ganoderma) for Cancer Patients

Chapter
Part of the Evidence-based Anticancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine book series (ACAM)

Abstract

Ganoderma lucidum (lucid ganoderma), a traditional Chinese herb, has been used extensively in East Asian for thousand years, and the biological activities and pharmacological functions of lucid ganoderma have been successively studied. Nowadays, some researches use scientific methods and techniques to study its anticancer effect on the cancer patients in clinical trial. For example, PC-SPES extracted from a mixture of lucid ganoderma and seven herbs decreased the prostate-specific antigen in patients with chemotherapy-induced hormone-independent prostate cancer. Lucid ganoderma extracts also improved the immune-stimulating response, such as the increase of plasma interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and interferon-γ concentrations, the enhance of natural killer cell activity, the decrease of plasma IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations, etc, as well as had low adverse effects in the cancer patients. The anticancer effects of lucid ganoderma in cell and animal models could be the strong references for the clinical trials. The components with anticancer potential in lucid ganoderma include triterpenoids, steroids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and novel proteins such as LZ-8. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo study, the anticancer mechanism of lucid ganoderma treatment against the growth of cancer cells in clinical trial might be mediated by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, anti-invasion, anti-migration, immunomodulation, anti-angiogenesis, etc. Additionally, the combination from lucid ganoderma and other herbs or foods as an alternative treatment might exhibit synergistic anticancer efficacy. However, more studies regarding the safety and application in clinical trial need to be processed in the future for providing more evidences.

Keywords

Fruiting Body Ganoderic Acid Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cell Lucid Ganoderma Fruit Body Extract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Akihisa, T., Nakamura, Y., Tagata, M., et al. (2007). Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 4, 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao, X. F., Wang, X. S., Dong, Q., et al. (2002). Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry, 59, 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Calvino, E., Manjon, J. L., Sancho, P., et al. (2010a). Ganoderma lucidum induced apoptosis in NB4 human leukemia cells: Involvement of Akt and Erk. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Calvino, E., Pajuelo, L., de Eribe Casas, J. A., et al. (2010b). Cytotoxic action of Ganoderma lucidum on interleukin-3 dependent lymphoma DA-1 cells: Involvement of apoptosis proteins. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 25, 25–32.Google Scholar
  5. Cao, Q. Z., & Lin, Z. B. (2004). Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 25, 833–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cao, Q. Z., & Lin, Z. B. (2006). Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell. Life Sciences, 78, 1457–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, W. K., Law, H. K., Lin, Z. B., et al. (2007). Response of human dendritic cells to different immunomodulatory polysaccharides derived from mushroom and barley. International Immunology, 19, 891–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chan, W. K., Cheung, C. C., Law, H. K., et al. (2008). Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function. Journal of Hematology & Oncology, 1, 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, D. H., Shiou, W. Y., Wang, K. C., et al. (1999). Chemotaxonomy of triterpenoid pattern of HPLC of Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society Taipei, 46, 47–51.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, H. S., Tsai, Y. F., Lin, S., et al. (2004). Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 12, 5595–5601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, N. H., Liu, J. W., & Zhong, J. J. (2008). Ganoderic acid Me inhibits tumor invasion through down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 gene expression. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 108, 212–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, N. H., Liu, J. W., & Zhong, J. J. (2010). Ganoderic acid T inhibits tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of MMP expression. Pharmacological Reports: PR, 62, 150–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, W. C., Hau, D. M., & Lee, S. S. (1995a). Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-ray-irradiated mice. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 23, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, W. C., Hau, D. M., Wang, C. C., et al. (1995b). Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on subset T-cell in spleen of gamma-irradiated mice. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 23, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen, X., Hu, Z. P., Yang, X. X., et al. (2006). Monitoring of immune responses to a herbal immuno-modulator in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. International Immunopharmacology, 6, 499–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, Y. K., Kuo, Y. H., Chiang, B. H., et al. (2009). Cytotoxic activities of 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide and ergosterol peroxide from the fermentation mycelia of ganoderma lucidum cultivated in the medium containing leguminous plants on Hep 3B cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 5713–5719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chui, C. H., Wong, R. S., Cheng, G. Y., et al. (2006). Antiproliferative ability of a combination regimen of crocodile egg extract, wild radix ginseng and natural Ganoderma lucidum on acute myelogenous leukemia. Oncology Reports, 6, 1313–1316.Google Scholar
  18. de la Taille, A., Hayek, O. R., Burchardt, M., et al. (2000). Role of herbal compounds (PC-SPES) in hormone-refractory prostate cancer: Two case reports. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6, 449–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dudhgaonkar, S., Thyagarajan, A., & Sliva, D. (2009). Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. International Immunopharmacology, 9, 1272–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, S., Dizeyi, N., Abrahamsson, P. A., et al. (2009). The effect of a novel botanical agent TBS-101 on invasive prostate cancer in animal models. Anticancer Research, 29, 3917–3924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fukuzawa, M., Yamaguchi, R., Hide, I., et al. (2008). Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 31, 1933–1937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao, J. J., Min, B. S., Ahn, E. M., et al. (2002). New triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cells. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo), 50, 837–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gao, Y., Zhou, S., Jiang, W., et al. (2003). Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunological Investigations, 32, 201–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gao, Y., Gao, H., Chan, E., et al. (2005). Antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of ganopoly, the refined polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice. Immunological Investigations, 34, 171–198.Google Scholar
  25. Guo, L., Xie, J., Ruan, Y., et al. (2009). Characterization and immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. International Immunopharmacology, 9, 1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hajjaj, H., Mace, C., Roberts, M., et al. (2005). Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 3653–3658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Han, J. R., An, C. H., & Yuan, J. M. (2005). Solid-state fermentation of cornmeal with the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum for degrading starch and upgrading nutritional value. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99, 910–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harhaji Trajkovic, L. M., Mijatovic, S. A., Maksimovic-Ivanic, D. D., et al. (2009). Anticancer properties of Ganoderma lucidum methanol extracts in vitro and in vivo. Nutrition and Cancer, 61, 696–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hong, K. J., Dunn, D. M., Shen, C. L., et al. (2004). Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function in HT-29 human colonic carcinoma cells. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 18, 768–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hsieh, T. C., & Wu, J. M. (2002). Mechanism of action of herbal supplement PC-SPES: Elucidation of effects of individual herbs of PC-SPES on proliferation and prostate specific gene expression in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. International Journal of Oncology, 20, 583–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hsu, C. L., Yu, Y. S., & Yen, G. C. (2008a). Lucidenic acid B induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells via a mitochondria-mediated pathway. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 3973–3980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hsu, H. Y., Hua, K. F., Wu, W. C., et al. (2008b). Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 215, 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hsu, J. W., Huang, H. C., Chen, S. T., et al. (2009). Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides induce macrophage-like differentiation in human leukemia THP-1 cells via caspase and p53 activation. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Medicine. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep107.Google Scholar
  34. Hu, H., Ahn, N. S., Yang, X., et al. (2002). Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. International Journal of Cancer, 102, 250–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jang, K. J., Han, M. H., Lee, B. H., et al. (2010). Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 3, 24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jeurink, P. V., Noguera, C. L., Savelkoul, H. F., et al. (2008). Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. International Immunopharmacology, 8, 1124–1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiang, J., Slivova, V., Harvey, K., et al. (2004). Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Nutrition and Cancer, 49, 209–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jiang, J., Slivova, V., & Sliva, D. (2006). Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling. International Journal of Oncology, 29, 695–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jiang, J., Grieb, B., Thyagarajan, A., et al. (2008). Ganoderic acids suppress growth and invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by modulating AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 21, 577–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim, K. C., Kim, J. S., Son, J. K., et al. (2007). Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells by the Ganoderma lucidum and Duchesnea chrysantha extracts. Cancer Letters, 246, 210–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim, K. C., Jun, H. J., Kim, J. S., et al. (2008). Enhancement of radiation response with combined Ganoderma lucidum and Duchesnea chrysantha extracts in human leukemia HL-60 cells. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 21, 489–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lai, C. Y., Hung, J. T., Lin, H. H., et al. (2010). Immunomodulatory and adjuvant activities of a polysaccharide extract of Ganoderma lucidum in vivo and in vitro. Vaccine, 28, 4945–4954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li, Y. B., Wang, R., Wu, H. L., et al. (2008). Serum amyloid A mediates the inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells. Oncology Reports, 20, 549–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Li, Y. Q., & Wang, S. F. (2006). Anti-hepatitis B activities of ganoderic acid from Ganoderma lucidum. Biotechnology Letters, 28, 837–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lin, S. B., Li, C. H., Lee, S. S, et al. (2003). Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest. Life Sciences, 72, 2381–2390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lin, Y. L., Liang, Y. C., Tseng, Y. S., et al. (2009). An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 86, 877–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, G. Q., & Zhang, K. C. (2007). Enhancement of polysaccharides production in Ganoderma lucidum by the addition of ethyl acetate extracts from Eupolyphaga sinensis and Catharsius molossus. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 74, 572–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, J., Shimizu, K., & Kondo, R. (2010). The effects of ganoderma alcohols isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on the androgen receptor binding and the growth of LNCaP cells. Fitoterapia, 81, 1067–1072.Google Scholar
  49. Liu, J., Shimizu, K., Konishi, F., et al. (2007). The anti-androgen effect of ganoderol B isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 15, 4966–4972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu, J., Tamura, S., Kurashiki, K., et al. (2009a). Anti-androgen effects of extracts and compounds from Ganoderma lucidum. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 6, 231–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu, Y. W., Gao, J. L., Guan, J., et al. (2009b). Evaluation of antiproliferative activities and action mechanisms of extracts from two species of ganoderma on tumor cell lines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 3087–3093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lu, Q. Y., Sartippour, M. R., Brooks, M. N., et al. (2004). Ganoderma lucidum spore extract inhibits endothelial and breast cancer cells in vitro. Oncology Reports, 12, 659–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Miura, T., Yuan, L., Sun, B., et al. (2002). Isoflavone aglycon produced by culture of soybean extracts with basidiomycetes and its anti-angiogenic activity. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 66, 2626–2631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Muller, C. I., Kumagai, T., O’Kelly, J. et al. (2006). Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Leukemia Research, 30, 841–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nonaka, Y., Shibata, H., Nakai, M., et al. (2006). Anti-tumor activities of the antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum in allogeneic and syngeneic tumor-bearing mice. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 70, 2028–2034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nonaka, Y., Ishibashi, H., Nakai, M., et al. (2008). Effects of the antlered form of Ganoderma lucidum on tumor growth and metastasis in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 72, 1399–1408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sadava, D., Still, D. W., Mudry, R. R., et al. (2009). Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Letters, 277, 182–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sheena, N., Ajith, T. A., & Janardhanan, K. K. (2003). Prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cisplatin, using Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal mushroom occurring in South India. Current Science India, 85, 478–482.Google Scholar
  59. Shiao, M. S. (1992). Triterpenoid natural products in the fungus Ganoderma Iucidum. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society Taipei, 39, 669–674.Google Scholar
  60. Sliva, D., Labarrere, C., & Slivova, V., et al. (2002). Ganoderma lucidum suppresses motility of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 298, 603–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sliva, D., Sedlak, M., Slivova, V., et al. (2003). Biologic activity of spores and dried powder from Ganoderma lucidum for the inhibition of highly invasive human breast and prostate cancer cells. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9, 491–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stanley, G., Harvey, K., Slivova, V., et al. (2005). Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 330, 46–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Su, C., Shiao, M., & Wang, C. (2000). Potentiation of ganodermic acid S on prostaglandin E(1)-induced cyclic AMP elevation in human platelets. Thrombosis Research, 99, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tang, W., Liu, J. W., Zhao, W. M., et al. (2006). Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Life Sciences, 80, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thyagarajan, A., Jiang, J., Hopf, A., et al. (2006). Inhibition of oxidative stress-induced invasiveness of cancer cells by Ganoderma lucidum is mediated through the suppression of interleukin-8 secretion. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 18, 657–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Thyagarajan, A., Zhu, J., & Sliva, D. (2007). Combined effect of green tea and Ganoderma lucidum on invasive behavior of breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology, 30, 963–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Thyagarajan, A., Jedinak, A., Nguyen, H., et al. (2010). Triterpenes from Ganoderma Lucidum induce autophagy in colon cancer through the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). Nutrition and Cancer, 62, 630–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tomasi, S., Lohezic-Le Devehat, F., Sauleau, P., et al. (2004). Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts from Basidiomycete mushrooms on murine cancer cell lines. Pharmazie, 59, 290–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wachtel-Galor, S., Szeto, Y. T., Tomlinson, B., et al. (2004a). Ganoderma lucidum (‘Lingzhi’); acute and short-term biomarker response to supplementation. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 55, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wachtel-Galor, S., Tomlinson, B., & Benzie, I. F. (2004b). Ganoderma lucidum (“Lingzhi”), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: Biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. The British Journal of Nutrition, 91, 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang, G., Zhao, J., Liu, J., et al. (2007). Enhancement of IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression and NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid Me in vivo. International Immunopharmacology, 7, 864–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang, J., Zhang, L., Yu, Y., et al. (2009). Enhancement of antitumor activities in sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 10565–10572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang, Y. Y., Khoo, K. H., Chen, S. T., et al. (2002). Studies on the immuno-modulating and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: Functional and proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 10, 1057–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weng, C. J., Chau, C. F., Chen, K. D., et al. (2007). The anti-invasive effect of lucidenic acids isolated from a new Ganoderma lucidum strain. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51, 1472–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Weng, C. J., Chau, C. F., Hsieh, Y. S., et al. (2008). Lucidenic acid inhibits PMA-induced invasion of human hepatoma cells through inactivating MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway and reducing binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Carcinogenesis, 29, 147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Weng, C. J., Chau, C. F., Yen, G. C., et al. (2009). Inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 5049–5057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wicks, S. M., Tong, R., Wang, C. Z., et al. (2007). Safety and tolerability of Ganoderma lucidum in healthy subjects: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 35, 407–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wu, T. S., Shi, L. S., & Kuo, S. C. (2001). Cytotoxicity of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes. Journal of Natural Products, 64, 1121–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yang, H. L. (2005). Ganoderic acid produced from submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum induces cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cell line BEL7402. Biotechnology Letters, 27, 835–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yang, X. J., Liu, J., Ye, L. B., et al. (2006). In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG, 12, 1379–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Yeh, C. M., Yeh, C. K., Hsu, X. Y., et al. (2008). Extracellular expression of a functional recombinant Ganoderma lucidium immunomodulatory protein by Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74, 1039–1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Yoshimura, K., Kamoto, T., Ogawa, O., et al. (2010). Medical mushrooms used for biochemical failure after radical treatment for prostate cancer: An open-label study. International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association, 17, 548–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yue, G. G., Fung, K. P., Tse, G. M., et al. (2006). Comparative studies of various ganoderma species and their different parts with regard to their antitumor and immunomodulating activities in vitro. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12, 777–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yue, G. G., Fung, K. P., Leung, P. C., et al. (2008a). Comparative studies on the immunomodulatory and antitumor activities of the different parts of fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma spores. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 22, 1282–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yue, Q. X., Cao, Z. W, Guan, S. H., et al. (2008b). Proteomics characterization of the cytotoxicity mechanism of ganoderic acid D and computer-automated estimation of the possible drug target network. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP, 7, 949–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yue, Q. X., Xie, F. B., Guan, S. H., et al. (2008c). Interaction of Ganoderma triterpenes with doxorubicin and proteomic characterization of the possible molecular targets of Ganoderma triterpenes. Cancer Science, 99, 1461–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yue, Q. X., Song, X. Y., Ma, C., et al. (2010). Effects of triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum on protein expression profile of HeLa cells. Phytomedicine, 17, 606–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yuen, J. W., & Gohel, M. D. (2008). The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urothelial cell DNA under carcinogenic attack. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 118, 324–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang, H. N., & Lin, Z. B. (2004). Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 25, 191–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang, Y., Lin, Z., Hu, Y., et al. (2008). Effect of Ganoderma lucidum capsules on T lymphocyte subsets in football players on “living high-training low”. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42, 819–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhu, H. S., Yang, X. L., Wang, L. B., et al. (2000). Effects of extracts from sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum on HeLa cells. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 16, 201–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhu, X. L., & Lin, Z. B. (2005). Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on proliferation and cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 26, 1130–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhuang, S. R., Chen, S. L., Tsai, J. H., et al. (2009). Effect of citronellol and the Chinese medical herb complex on cellular immunity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Phytotherapy Research: PTR, 23, 785–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Food Science and TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations