Advertisement

Interactive, Visual 3D Spatial Grammars

  • Frank Hoisl
  • Kristina Shea
Conference paper

Abstract

Since their introduction, shape or spatial grammars have been successfully used as a generative approach for creating alternative designs in different areas, e.g. visual arts, architecture or engineering. However, there are only a few three-dimensional spatial grammars that have been computationally implemented to date. Most are hard-coded, i.e. the vocabulary and rules cannot be changed without re-programming them, and only some provide limited rule parameter definition. This paper presents an approach for a basic 3D grammar interpreter that provides for the interactive, visual development and application of three-dimensional spatial grammar rules. It puts the creation and use of spatial grammars on a more general level and supports designers, who tend to think spatially, with facilitated definition and application of their own rules.

Keywords

Spatial Relation Parametric Relation Geometric Object Reference Object Rule Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Stiny, G., Gips, J.: Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. In: Information Processing, vol. 71, pp. 1460–1465. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1972)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stiny, G.: Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 73, 343–351 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cagan, J.: Engineering Shape Grammars: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going. In: Antonsson, E.K., Cagan, J. (eds.) Formal Engineering Design Synthesis, pp. 65–91. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chau, H.H., Chen, X.J., McKay, A., de Pennington, A.: Evaluation of a 3D Shape Grammar Implementation. In: Design Computing and Cognition 2004, pp. 357–376. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chase, S.C.: A model for user interaction in grammar-based design systems. Automation in Construction 11, 161–172 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jowers, I., Prats, M., Lim, S., McKay, A., Garner, S., Chase, S.: Supporting Reinterpretation in Computer-Aided Conceptual Design. In: EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling, Annecy, France, pp. 151–158 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trescak, T., Esteva, M., Rodriguez, I.: General Shape Grammar Interpreter for Intelligent Designs Generations. In: Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, CGIV 2009, Tianjin, China, vol. 6, pp. 235–240. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gips, J.: Computer implementation of shape grammars. In: NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, USA (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krishnamurti, R., Stouffs, R.: Spatial grammars: motivation, comparison, and new results. In: 5th International Conference on Computer-aided Architectural Design Futures, Pittsburgh, USA, pp. 57–74. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tapia, M.: A visual implementation of a shape grammar system. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 261, 59–73 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGill, M., Knight, T.: Designing Design-Mediating Software: The Development of Shaper2D. In: Proceedings of eCAADe 2004, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 119–127 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCormack, J.P., Cagan, J.: Curve-based shape matching: Supporting designers’ hierarchies through parametric shape recognition of arbitrary geometry. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 334, 523–540 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jowers, I., Hogg, D., McKay, A., Chau, H., de Pennington, A.: Shape detection with vision: Implementing shape grammars in conceptual design. In: Research in Engineering Design (SpringerLink Online First: March 27, 2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heisserman, J., Callahan, J.: Interactive grammatical design. In: AI in Design 1996, Workshop Notes on Grammatical Design, Stanford, CA (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heisserman, J.: Generative geometric design. Computer Graphics and Applications 142, 37–45 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Piazzalunga, U., Fitzhorn, P.: Note on a three-dimensional shape grammar interpreter. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 25, 11–30 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wong, W.K., Cho, C.T.: A Computational Environment for Learning Basic Shape Grammars. In: International Conference on Computers in Education 2004, Melbourne, pp. 287–292 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, Y., Duarte, J.: Automatic generation and fabrication of designs. Automation in Construction 113, 291–302 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stiny, G.: Spatial relations and grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 9, 313–314 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stiny, G.: Kindergarten grammars: designing with Froebel’s building gifts. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 74, 409–462 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoisl, F., Shea, K.: Exploring the Integration of Spatial Grammars and Open-Source CAD Systems. In: 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stanford University, California, USA, Design Society, vol. 6, pp. 6-427– 426-438 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Hoisl
    • 1
  • Kristina Shea
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität MünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations