Interactive, Visual 3D Spatial Grammars

  • Frank Hoisl
  • Kristina Shea
Conference paper


Since their introduction, shape or spatial grammars have been successfully used as a generative approach for creating alternative designs in different areas, e.g. visual arts, architecture or engineering. However, there are only a few three-dimensional spatial grammars that have been computationally implemented to date. Most are hard-coded, i.e. the vocabulary and rules cannot be changed without re-programming them, and only some provide limited rule parameter definition. This paper presents an approach for a basic 3D grammar interpreter that provides for the interactive, visual development and application of three-dimensional spatial grammar rules. It puts the creation and use of spatial grammars on a more general level and supports designers, who tend to think spatially, with facilitated definition and application of their own rules.


Spatial Relation Parametric Relation Geometric Object Reference Object Rule Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Hoisl
    • 1
  • Kristina Shea
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität MünchenGermany

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