Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 1)

Abstract

Coastal regions are particular sensitive towards environmental changes. Climate Change is likely to cause changes in main determining environmental factors in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Several model studies indicate an increasing water temperature (in average about 3.0°C in sea surface temperature), a decrease in salinity (in the range of 2–3 g kg–1 in sea surface salinity) as well as changes in source and distribution of nutrient discharge via river runoff. Changes in the ecosystem of coastal waters in the southern Baltic Sea area occur mainly during the summer season due to decreased river runoff and hence, decreased nutrient input. This may result in reduced algae growth in coastal waters but also carries the risk of potentially toxic cyanobacteria blooms caused by N-Limitation. Cyanobacteria growth is also supported by higher water temperatures. Additionally, changes in species composition and distribution, the occurrence of pathogens as well as the introduction of non-indigenous species could be expected due to warmer water temperatures and/or a decrease in salinity. Those changes in the ecosystem are likely to have an effect on anthropogenic uses in coastal waters like bathing tourism (health problems) and fisheries (changes in coastal fish communities). On the other hand, the anthropogenic uses themselves affect the ecosystem considerably (e.g. pollution, overfishing, noise). The impact of Climate Change has to be seen as one of many interacting factors. Also changes in land use patterns and agricultural management will have a main influence on nutrient loads from the catchment area. Further, social developments like the increasing attractiveness of coastal regions in the southern Baltic Sea area for tourists and migrants will influence the impact on the local ecosystem of coastal waters. For coastal adaptation strategies knowledge about the regional vulnerability towards Climate Change is essential but lacking for Baltic coastal waters recently.

Keywords

Coastal Water River Runoff Vistula Lagoon Warm Water Temperature Coastal Fish Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author likes to thank H. Janßen and I. Krämer (Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Research Warnemünde) for many supportive comments on the article. The work was supported by the projects BaltCICA and BALTADAPT (Part-financed by Baltic Sea Region Programme of the European Union) as well as RADOST (BMBF 01LR0807).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research WarnemündeRostockGermany

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