Nutritional Quality and Safety of Organic Food

  • Denis LaironEmail author


Food security, nutritional quality and safety vary widely around the world. Reaching these three goals is one of the major challenges for the near future. Up to now, industrialized production methods have clearly shown severe limitations such as a worldwide contamination of the food chain and water by persistent pesticide residues, and reduced nutrient and flavor contents through low-cost intensive food production and/or processing. In line with several published literature reviews, the French Agency for Food Safety (AFSSA) performed under my coordination an up-to-date exhaustive and critical evaluation of the nutritional and sanitary quality of organic food. This review is based on the AFSSA report issued and recently published studies. The major points are: 1/ organic plant products contain more dry matter and minerals (Fe, Mg); and contain more anti-oxidant micronutrients such as phenols and salicylic acid, 2/ organic animal products contain more polyunsaturated fatty acids, 3/ data on carbohydrate, protein and vitamin levels are insufficiently documented, 4/ 94–100% of organic food does not contain any pesticide residues, 5/ organic vegetables contain far less nitrates, about 50% less; and 6/ organic cereals contain overall similar levels of mycotoxins as conventional ones. Thus, organic agricultural systems have already proved able to produce food with high quality standards. I propose also improvements of organic production to achieve sustainable food production for humans in the near future.


Sustainable agriculture Organic agriculture Human food Nutrition Food safety Contaminants Health 


  1. AFSSA (2003) Report on Evaluation of the nutritional and sanitary quality of organic foods (Evaluation nutritionnelle et sanitaire des aliments issus de l’agriculture biologique, in French), AFSSA, 164 p. Available on line at
  2. Alföldi T., Mader P., Niggli U., Spiess E., Dubois D., Besson J.-M. (1996) Quality investigation in the long term DOC trial, Quality of plant products growth with manure fertilisation, Proceeding of the Fourth meeting (Juva Finland, 6–9 July 1996 Darmstadt Germany), Institut for Biodynamic research, pp. 34–43.Google Scholar
  3. Anselme M., Tangni E.K., Pussemier L., Motte J.C., Van Hove F., Schneider Y.J., Van Peteghem C., Larondelle Y. (2006) Comparison of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in organically and conventionally produced beers sold on the Belgian market, Food Add. Contam. 23, 910–918.Google Scholar
  4. Basker D. (1992) Comparison of taste quality between organically and conventionally grown fruits and vegetables, Am. J. Alternative Agric. 7, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baxter G.J., Graham A.B., Lawrence J.R., Wiles D., Paterson J.R. (2001) Salicylic acid in soups prepared from organically and non-organically grown vegetables, Eur. J. Nutr. 40, 289–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beretta B., De Domenico R., Gaiaschi A., Ballabio C., Galli C.L., Gigliotti C., Restani P. (2002) Ochratoxin A in cereal-based baby food: occurence and safety evaluation, Food Addit. Contam. 19, 70–75.Google Scholar
  7. Biffi R., Munari M., Dioguardi L., Ballabio C., Cattaneo A., Galli C.L., Restani P. (2004) Ochratoxin A in conventional and organic cereal derivatives: a survey of the italian market 2001–02, Food Addit. Contam. 21, 586–591.Google Scholar
  8. Birzele B., Prange A., Kramer J. (2000) Deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in german wheat and changes of level in relation to storage parameters, Food Addit. Contam. 17, 1027–1035.Google Scholar
  9. Bohnel H., Lube K. (2000) Clostridium botulinum and bio-compost. A contribution to the analysis of potential health hazards caused by bio-waste recycling, J. Vet. Med. B 47, 785–795.Google Scholar
  10. Bourn D., Prescott J. (2002) A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 42, 1–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandt K., Mölgaard J.P. (2001) Organic agriculture: does it enhance or reduce the nutritional value of plant foods? J. Sci. Food Agr. 81, 924–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandt D.A., Brand T.S., Cruywagen C.W. (2000) The use of crude protein content to predict concentrations of lysine and methionine in grain harvested from selected cultivars of wheat, barley and triticale grown in the western cape region of South Africa, S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 30, 22–25.Google Scholar
  13. Carbonaro M., Matterra M., Nicoli S., Bergamo P., Cappelloni M. (2002) Modulation of antioxydant compounds in organic vs. conventional fruit (peach, Prunus persica L., and pear, Pyrus communis L.), J. Agr. Food Chem. 50, 5458–5462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caris-Veyrat C., Amiot M.J., Tyssandier V., Grasselly D., Buret M., Mikolajczak M., Guilland J.C., Bouteloup-Demange C., Borel P. (2004) Influence of organic versus conventional agricultural practice on the antioxidant microconstituent content of tomatoes and derived purees; consequences on antioxidant plasma status in humans, J Agr. Food Chem. 52, 6503–6509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castellini C., Mugnai C., Dal Bosco A. (2002) Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality, Meat Sci. 60, 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornée J., Lairon D., Velema J., Guyader M., Berthezene P. (1992) An estimate of nitrate, nitrite and N- nitrosodimethylamine concnetrations in french food products or food groups, Sci. Alim. 12, 155–197.Google Scholar
  17. DGAL/COOPAGRI/ESMISAB (2001) Évaluation de l’exposi-tion des consommateurs et produits issus de l’agriculture biologique et de l’agriculture conventionnelle aux résidus de pesticides, métaux lourds, nitrates, nitrites et mycotoxines, Notre Alimentation 37, I-VI.Google Scholar
  18. DG SANCO (2007) Monitoring of pesticide residues in products of plant origin in European union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, 2005 Report.
  19. Dowe M.J., Jackson E.D., Mori J.G., Bell C.R. (1997) Listeria monocytogenes survival in soil and incidence in agricultural soils, J. Food Prot. 60, 1201–1207.Google Scholar
  20. Droffner M.L., Brinton W.F. (1995) Survival of E. coli and Salmonella populations in aerobic thermophilic composts as measured with DNA gene probes, Zbl. Hyg. 197, 387–397.Google Scholar
  21. Echevarria L. (2001) Qualité du lait livré par les élevages agrobiologiques de quatre régions françaises, Renc. Rech. Rum. 8, 95.Google Scholar
  22. El-Hage Scialabba N. (2007) Organic agriculture and food security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Report of the International conference on organic agriculture and food security, May 3–5, Roma, Italy, 22 p. (available at
  23. Ferlay A., Martin B., Pradel P., Coulon J.B., Chilliard Y. (2006) Influence of grass-based diets on milk fatty acid composition and milk lipolytic system in Tarentaise and Montbeliarde cow breeds, J. Dairy Sci. 89, 4026–4041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finesilver T., Johns T., Hill S.B. (1989) Comparison of food quality of organically versus conventionally grown plant foods, a review, Ecological Agriculture Projects, Report, McGill University, Canada.Google Scholar
  25. Fischer J. (2001) Blé bio : De bonnes variétés boulangères pour la panification française, Perspect. Agric. n ∘  272.Google Scholar
  26. Fischer A., Richter C. (1986) Influence of organic and mineral fertilizers on yield and quality of potatoes, in: Vogtmann H., Boehnke E., Fricke I. (Eds.), The importance of biological agriculture in a world of diminishing resources (Proceedings of the 5th IFOAM Conference), Verlagsgruppe, witzenhausen, Germany, pp. 236–248.Google Scholar
  27. Food Standards Agency (2000) Food Standards Agency (UK) view on organic foods, 4 p.Google Scholar
  28. Frank Hansen L. (1990) Characterization of organic milk, Proceedings of the Ecological Agriculture NJF-seminar 166 – Miljövard.Google Scholar
  29. French Inventaire National de la Qualité Alimentaire (1982) Ministère de l’Environnement, Neuilly, France, 199 p.Google Scholar
  30. Ghidini S., Zanardi E., Battaglia A., Varisco G., Ferretti E., Campanini G., Chizzolini R. (2005) Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from Northern Italy, Food Add. Contam. 22, 9–14.Google Scholar
  31. Gravert H.O., Pabst K., Ordolff D., Treitel U. (1989) Milcherzeugung in alternativen Landbau, K. Milchw. Forsch. 41, 211–223.Google Scholar
  32. Grinder-Pedersen L., Rasmussen S.E., Bügel S., Jørgensen L.V., Dragsted L.O., Gundersen V., Sandstrom B̈m B. (2003) Effect of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans, J. Agr. Food Chem. 51, 5671–5676.Google Scholar
  33. Gutierrez F., Arnaud T., Albi M.A. (1999) Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality, JAOCS 76, 617–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hamouz K., Lachman J., Vokal B., Pivec V. (1999) Influence of environmental conditions and way of cultivation on the polyphenol and ascorbic acid content in potato tubers, Rostlinna Vyroba 45, 293–298.Google Scholar
  35. Hansson I., Hamilton C., Ekman T., Forslund K. (2000) Carcass quality in certified organic production compared with conventional livestock production, J. Vet. Med. 47, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herriott D.E., Hancock D.D., Ebel E.D., Carpenter L.V., Rice D.H., Besser T.E. (1998) Association of herd management factors with colonization of dairy cattle by shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli 0157, J. Food Protect. 61, 802–807.Google Scholar
  37. Heuer O.E., Perdersen K., Andersen J.S., Madsen M. (2001) Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33, 269–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hogstad S., Risvik E., Steinsholt K. (1997) Sensory quality and chemical composition of carrots: a multivariate study, Acta Agr. Scand. 47, 253–264.Google Scholar
  39. Hönikel K.O. (1998) Qualität ökologisch erzeugter Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft., Dtsch. Tierärzt. Wschr. 105, 327–329.Google Scholar
  40. Jörgensen K., Rasmussen G., Thorup I. (1996) Ochratoxin A in Danish cereals 1986–92 and daily uptake by Danish population, Food Addit. Contam. 13, 95–104.Google Scholar
  41. Kolbe H., Meineke S., Zhang W.L. (1995) Institute for Plant Nutrition, Germany: Differences in organic and mineral fertilisation on potato tuber yield and chemical composition compared to model calculations, Agribiol. Res. 48, 63–73.Google Scholar
  42. Kouba M., Enser M., Whittington F.M., Nute G.R., Wood J.D. (2002) Effet d’un regime riche en acide linolénique sur les activités d’enzymes lipogéniques, la composition en acides gras et la qualité de la viande chez le porc en croissance, Neuvièmes Journées des Sciences du Muscle et Technologie de la Viande, 15–16 octobre 2002 - Clermont-Ferrand.
  43. Kuhn F. (1999) Bestimmung von Trichothecenen in Weizen aus verschiedenen Anbausystemen mittels HPLC-MS, Diplomarbeit, Universität Basel, 60 p.Google Scholar
  44. Lairon D., Lafont H., Léonardi J., Hauton J.C., Ribaud P. (1982) Comparaison de l’intérêt nutritif de légumes produits par l’agriculture conventionnelle ou biologique, Sci. Aliments 2(HS II), 203–205.Google Scholar
  45. Lairon D., Termine E., Lafont H. (1984a) Valeur nutritionnelle comparée des légumes obtenus par les méthodes de l’agriculture biologique ou de l’agriculture conventionnelle, Cah. Nutr. Diet. 6, 331–339.Google Scholar
  46. Lairon D., Spitz N., Termine E., Ribaud P., Lafont H., Hauton J.C. (1984b) Effect of organic and mineral nitrogen fertilization on yield and nutritive value of butterhead lettuce, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 34, 97–108.Google Scholar
  47. Lairon D., Termine E., Gauthier S., Lafont H. (1985) Teneurs en nitrates des productions maraîchères obtenues par des méthodes de l’agriculture biologique, Sci. Aliments 5(HS V), 337–343.Google Scholar
  48. Leclerc J., Miller M.L., Joliet E., Rocquelin G. (1991) Vitamin and mineral contents of carrot and celeriac grown under mineral or organic fertilization, Biol. Agric. Hortic. 7, 339–348.Google Scholar
  49. Levite D., Adrian M., Tamm L. (2000) Preliminary results of resveratrol in wine of organic and conventional vineyards, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on organic Viticulture, Basel (Suisse), pp. 256–257.Google Scholar
  50. Lockeretz W. (1983) Environmentally sound agriculture, Proceedings of the 4th IFOAM International Conference Cambridge, USA, August 18–20, 1982, Praeger, 426 p.Google Scholar
  51. Lucarini M., Carbonaro M., Nicoli S., Aguzzi A., Cappelloni M., Ruggeri S., Di Lullo G., Gambelli L., Carnovale E. (1999) Endogenous markers for organic versus conventional plant products, Agri-Food Quality II: Quality Management of Fruits and Vegetables, pp. 306–310.Google Scholar
  52. Lund P. (1991) Characterization of alternatively produced milk, Milchwissenschaft 46, 166–169.Google Scholar
  53. Lung A.J., Lin C.M., Kim J.M., Marshall M.R., Nordstedt R., Thompson N.P., Wie C.I. (2001) Destruction of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in cow manure composting, J. Food Protect. 64, 1309–1314.Google Scholar
  54. Mäder L., Pfiffner L., Niggli U., Balzer U., Balzer F., Plochberger A., Velimirov A., Boltzmann L., Besson J.M. (1993) Effect of three farming systems (bio-dynamic, bio-organic, conventional) on yield and quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta L.) in a seven year crop rotation, Acta Hort. 339, 11–31.Google Scholar
  55. Magkos F., Arvaniti F., Zampelas A. (2006) Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the litterature, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46, 23–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Malmauret L., Parent-Massin D., Hardy J.L., Verger P. (2002) Contaminants in organic and conventional foodstuffs in France, Food Addit. Contam. 19, 524–532.Google Scholar
  57. Martin B., Ferlay A., Pradel P., Rock E., Grolier P., Dupont D., Gruffat D., Besle J.M., Ballot N., Chilliard Y., Coulon J.B. (2002) Variabilité de la teneur des laits en constituants d’intérêt nutritionnel selon la nature des fourrages consommés par les vaches laitières, Actes des 9es Renc. Rech. Rum. 9, 347–350.Google Scholar
  58. Miller D.S., Dema I.S. (1958) Nutritive value of wheat from the Rothamsted Broadbalk field, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 17, xliv-xlv.Google Scholar
  59. Mitchell A.E., Hong Y.J., Koh E., Barrett D.M., Bryant D.E., Denison R.F., Kaffka S. (2007) Ten-year comparison of the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on the content of flavonoids in tomatoes, J. Agr. Food Chem. 55, 6154–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moore V.K., Zabik M.E., Zabick M.J. (2000) Evaluation of conventional and “organic” baby food brands for eight organochlorine and five botanical pesticides, Food Chem. 71, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morel R., Lasnier T., Bourgeois S. (1984) Les essais de fertilisation de longue durée de la station agronomique de Grignon, Ed. Inra, Paris, 335 p.Google Scholar
  62. Niggli U., Leifert C., Aföldi C., Lück L., Willer H. (2007) Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of the European integrated project Quality Low Imput Food (QLIF), University of Hohenheim, March 20–23, 2007,
  63. Nuernberg K., Nuernberg G., Ender K., Lorenz S., Winkler K., Rickert R., Steinhart H. (2002) N-3 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acids of longissimus muscle in beef cattle, Eur. J. Lip. Sci. Technol. 104, 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Olsson M.E., Andersson C.S., Oredsson S., Berglund R.H., Gustavsson K.E. (2006) Antioxidant levels and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by extracts from organically and conventionally cultivated strawberries, J. Agr. Food Chem. 54, 1248–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Parent-Massin D., Conan J.C., Langler C., Leveque J.M., Thisse M. (2002) Analysis of mycotoxin levels in bread, biscuits, muesli, apple juice and apple marmelade prepared from organic raw materials, Toxicol. Lett. 135, 107.Google Scholar
  66. Pastsshenko V., Matthes H.D., Hein T., Holzer Z. (2000) Impact of cattle grazing on meat fatty acid composition in relation to human nutrition, in Proceedings 13th IFOAM Scientific Conference, pp. 293–296.Google Scholar
  67. Pérez-López A.J., López-Nicolas J.M., Núñez-Delicado E., Del Amor F.M., Carbonell-Barrachina A.A. (2007) Effects of agricultural practices on color, carotenoids composition, and minerals contents of sweet peppers, cv. Almuden, J. Agr. Food Chem. 55, 8158–8164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pither R., Hall M.N. (1990) Analytical survey of the nutritional composition of organically grown fruit and vegetables, Campden, June 1990.Google Scholar
  69. PNNS, Plan National Nutrition Santé (2001–2011)
  70. Pommer G., Lepschy J. (1985) Investigation of the contents of winter wheat and carrots from different sources of production and marketing, Bayer. Landwirtsch. Jahrb. 62, 549–563.Google Scholar
  71. Poulsen M.E., Andersen J.H. (2003). Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market, 2000-01, Food Addit. Contam. 20, 742–757.Google Scholar
  72. Rauter W., Wolkerstorfer W. (1982) Nitrat in gemuse, Z. Lebensm. Unters. F. 175, 122–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rembialkowska E. (2007) Quality of plant products from organic agriculture, J. Sci. Food Agr. 87, 2757–2762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ren H., Bao H., Endo H., Hayashi T. (2001) Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities and flavonoid contents of organically cultivated vegetables, Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kaishi 48, 246–252.Google Scholar
  75. Rossi F., Godani F., Bertuzzi T., Trevisan M., Ferrari F., Gatti S. (2008) Health-promoting substances and heavy metal content in tomatoes grown with different farming techniques, Eur. J. Nutr. 47, 266–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. SCF (2002) Risk profile on the microbiological contamination of fruits and vegetables eaten raw. Report on the Scientific Commmittee on Food, European Commission, 29 Avril 2002.
  77. Schneweis I., Meyer K., Ritzmann M., Hoffmann P., Dempfle L., Bauer J. (2005) Influence of organically or conventionally produced wheat on health, performance and mycotoxin residues in tissues and bile of growing pigs, Arch. Anim. Nutr. 59, 155–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schuphan W. (1974) Nutritional Value of crops as influenced by organic and inorganic fertiliser treatments, Qual. Plant. Plant Food. Hum. Nutr. 23, 333–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. SETRABIO (2000) Etude des teneurs de résidus en pesticides dans les produits biologiques bruts et transformés, 1993–2000, 115 p.Google Scholar
  80. Shier N.W., Kelman J., Dunson J.W. (1984) A comparison of crude protein, moisture, ash and crop yield between organic and conventionally grown wheat, Nutr. Rep. Int. 30, 71–73.Google Scholar
  81. Soil Association (2001) Organic farming, food quality and human health. A review of the evidence, 87 p.Google Scholar
  82. Stopes C., Woodward L., Forde G., Vogtmann H. (1988) The nitrate content of vegetable and salad crops offered to the consumer as from organic or conventional production systems, Biol. Agric. Hortic. 5, 215–221.Google Scholar
  83. Strauch D. (1991) Survival of microorganisms and parasites in excreta, manure and sewage sludge, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 10, 816–846.Google Scholar
  84. Sundrum A., Bütfering L., Henning M., Hoppenbrock K.H. (2000) Effects of on-farm diets for organic pig production on performance and carcass quality, J. Anim. Sci. 78, 1199–1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Tarozzi A., Hrelia S., Angeloni C., Morroni F., Biagi P., Guardigli M., Cantelli-Forti G., Hrelia P. (2006) Antioxidant effectiveness of organically and non-organically grown red oranges in cell culture systems, Eur. J. Nutr. 45, 152–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tasiopoulou S., Chiodini A.M., Vellere F., Visentin S. (2007) Results of the monitoring program of pesticide residues in organic food of plant origin in Lombardy (Italy), J. Environ. Sci. Health B 42, 835–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Temperli A., Kunsch V., Scharer H., Konrad P., Suter H., Ott P., Eichenberger M., Schmid O. (1982) Einfluss zweier Anbauweisen auf den Nitratgehalt von Kopfsalat, Schweiz. Landw. Fo. 21, 167–196.Google Scholar
  88. Termine E., Lairon D., Taupier-Letage B., Gauthier S., Lafont R., Lafont H. (1987) Yield and contents in nitrates, minerals and ascorbic acid of leeks and turnips grown under mineral or organic nitrogen fertilization, Plant Food. Hum. Nutr. 37, 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tiquia S.M., Tam N.F.Y., Hodgkiss I.J. (1998) Salmonella elimination during composting of spent pig litter, Bioresource Technol. 63, 193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Toledo P., Andren A., Bjrk L. (2002) Composition of raw milk from sustainable production systems, Int. Dairy J. 12, 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Usleber E., Lepschy J., Mätlbauer E. (2000) Deoxynivaleol in Mehlproben des Jahres 1999 aus dem Einzelhandel, Mycotoxin Res. 16A, 30–33.Google Scholar
  92. Van Renterghem B., Huysman F., Rygole R., Verstraete W. (1991) Detection and prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the agricultural ecosystem, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71, 211–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vogtmann H., Temperli A.T., Künsch U., Eichenberger M., Ott P. (1984) Accumulation of nitrates in leafy vegetables grown under contrasting agricultural systems, Biol. Agric. Hortic. 2, 51–68.Google Scholar
  94. Vuorinen A.H., Saharinen M.H. (1997) Evolution of microbiological and chemical parameters during manure and straw co-composting in a drum composting system, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 66, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warnick L.D., Crofton L.M., Pelzer K.D., Hawkins M.J. (2001) Risk factors for clinical salmonellosis in Virginia, USA cattle herds, Prev. Vet. Med. 49, 259–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weibel F.P., Bickel R., Leuthold S., Alföldi T. (2000) Are organically grown apples tastier and healthier? A comparative field study using conventional and alternative methods to measure fruit quality, Acta Hort. 517, 417–426.Google Scholar
  97. WHO (2004) Food and health in Europe: a new basis for action. WHO Regional Publications, European series, No. 96, 385 p.Google Scholar
  98. Winter C.K., Davis S.F. (2006) Organic Foods, J. Food Sci. 71, R117-R124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Woëse K., Lange D., Boess C., Bögl K.W. (1997) A comparison of organically and conventionally grown foods - Results of a review of the relevant literature, J. Sci. Food Agr. 74, 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolfson J.L., Shearer G. (1981) Amino acid composition of grain of maize grown with and without pesticides and standard commercial fertilizers, Agron. J. 73, 611–613.Google Scholar
  101. World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective, American Institute of Cancer, Washington DC, USA, 517 p.Google Scholar
  102. Worthington V. (1998) Effect of agricultural methods on nutritional quality: a comparison of organic with conventional crops, Altern. Ther. 4, 58–69.Google Scholar
  103. Zangerl P., Ginzinger W., Tschager E., Lobitzer I. (2000) Sensory quality and microbial load of milk products from organic farming in Austria, in Proceedings 13th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, Basel, Switzerland, 28–31 August 2000, p. 298.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA, UMR 1260, Nutriments Lipidiques et Prévention des Maladies Métaboliques, U476Univ. Aix-Marseille 1, Univ. Aix-Marseille 2, Faculté de MédecineMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations