Hydrogen Peroxide Degradation in Cyanobacteria

  • Marcel Zamocky
  • Margit Bernroitner
  • Günter A. Peschek
  • Christian Obinger
Chapter

Abstract

By opening the era of an aerobic, oxygen-containing biosphere cyanobacteria are the true pace-makers of geological and biological evolution. They must have been among the first organisms to elaborate mechanisms for the detoxification of partially reduced oxygen species including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Here, the current knowledge of occurrence and function of hydroperoxidases in cyanobacteria is presented that include both heme and non-heme catalases and peroxidases. In detail, it is demonstrated that H2O2 dismutating enzymes are represented mainly by bifunctional (heme) catalase-peroxidases and (binuclear) manganese catalases, with the latter being almost exclusively found in diazotrophic species. Several strains even lack a gene that encodes an enzyme with catalase activity. Two groups of peroxidases are found. Genes encoding putative (primordial) heme peroxidases (with homology to corresponding mammalian enzymes) and vanadium-containing iodoperoxidases are found only in few species, whereas genes encoding peroxiredoxins (1-Cys, 2-Cys, type II and Q-type) are ubiquitous in cyanobacteria. In addition, about 70% contain NADPH-dependent glutathione peroxidase-like proteins. The occurrence and phylogeny of these enzymes is discussed as well as the present knowledge of their physiological role(s).

Keywords

Lateral Gene Transfer Synechocystis PCC6803 Synechococcus Elongatus Cyanobacterial Genome Heme Peroxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcel Zamocky
    • 1
    • 3
  • Margit Bernroitner
    • 1
  • Günter A. Peschek
    • 2
  • Christian Obinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Division of Biochemistry, Vienna Institute of BioTechnologyBOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Physical ChemistryUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Molecular BiologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia

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