Advertisement

Faculty Development for Workplace Instructors

  • Marilla D. Svinicki
  • LuAnn Wilkerson
Chapter
Part of the Innovation and Change in Professional Education book series (ICPE, volume 6)

Abstract

If the ultimate goal of workplace learning is to be successful teaching students who have been placed in the workplace setting to learn, then strategies that will help the instructors learn how to support the students are the goal of faculty development (also called staff development or educational development in different countries and disciplines) and its practitioners. To use the more familiar workplace learning denotation, faculty developers are the trainers who train the trainers. The focus of that training, and this chapter, is the workplace instructor and the goal of that training is to make the workplace instructors more effective when helping students. This chapter will identify evidence-based practices that can help instructors be more effective, while maintaining the integrity of the workplace activities.

Keywords

Faculty Member Student Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge Faculty Development Student Nurse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aleamoni, L. (1990). Faculty development research in colleges, universities, and professional schools: The challenge. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 2, 193–195.Google Scholar
  2. Alford, D., Richardson, J., Chapman, S., Dube, C., Schadt, R., & Saitz, R. (2008). A web-based alcohol clinical training (ACT) curriculum: Is in-person faculty development necessary to affect teaching. Medical Education, 8(11) [Accessed at http://www.bidmedcentral.com/1472-6920/8/11 July, 2009.].
  3. Allen, T., Eby, L., O’Brien, K., & Lentz, E. (2008). The state of mentoring research: A qualitative review of current research methods and future research implications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 343–357.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, N., & Radencich, M. (2001). The value of feedback in an early field experience: Peer, teacher, and supervisor coaching. Action in Teacher Education, 23(3), 66–74.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, P. (2002). Cooperating teachers’ professional growth through supervision of student teachers and participation in a collegial study group. Teacher Education Quarterly, 29(2), 123–132.Google Scholar
  6. Ashforth, B., Sluss, D., & Saks, A. (2007). Socialization tactics, proactive behavior, and newcomer learning: Integrating socialization models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 447–462.Google Scholar
  7. Barab, S., Barnett, M., & Squire, K. (2002). Developing an empirical account of a community of practice: Characterizing the essential tensions. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(4), 489–542.Google Scholar
  8. Barnes, L. (1999). Variations on a teaching/learning workshop: Pedagogy and faculty development in religious studies. Atlanta: Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, C., & Kosnik, C. (2002). Professors and the practicum: Involvement of university faculty in preservice practicum supervision. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 6–19.Google Scholar
  10. Billett, S. R. (1994). Searching for authenticity – a sociocultural perspective of vocational skill development. Vocational Aspects of Education, 46(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  11. Bligh, J., & Brice, J. (2008). What is the value of good medical education research? Medical Education, 42, 652–653.Google Scholar
  12. Block, L., Claffey, C., Korow, M., & McCaffery, R. (2005). The value of mentorship within nursing organizations. Nursing Forum, 40(4), 134–140.Google Scholar
  13. Booth, M., Hargreaves, D., Bradley, H., & Southworth, G. (1995). Training of doctors in hospitals: A comparison with teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 21(2), 145–161.Google Scholar
  14. Borko, H., & Mayfield, V. (1995). The roles of the cooperating teacher and university supervisor in learning to teach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(5), 501–518.Google Scholar
  15. Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  16. Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brinko, K. (1997). The interactions of teaching improvement. In K. Brinko, R. Menges (Eds.), Practically speaking: A sourcebook for instructional consultants in higher education. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brookfield, S. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, J., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.Google Scholar
  20. Bullough, R., Young, J., Erickson, L., Birrell, J. R., Clark, C., Etgan, M. W., et al. (2002). Rethinking field experience: Partnership teaching versus single-placement teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(1), 68–80.Google Scholar
  21. Caffarella, R. S., & Zinn, L. F. (1999). Professional development for faculty: A conceptual framework of barriers and supports. Innovative Higher Education, 23(4), 241–254.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, M., & Brummett, V. (2007). Mentoring preservice teachers for development and growth of professional knowledge. Music Educators Journal, 93(3), 50–55.Google Scholar
  23. Carroll, D. (2006). Developing joint accountability in university-school teacher education partnerships. Action in Teacher Education, 27(4), 3–11.Google Scholar
  24. Chism, N. V. N., & Banta, T. W. (2007). Enhancing institutional assessment efforts through qualitative methods. New Directions in Institutional Research, 136, 15–28.Google Scholar
  25. Chism, N., Lees, N. D., & Evenbeck, S. (2002). Faculty development for teaching innovation. Liberal Education, 88(3), 34–42.Google Scholar
  26. Chism, N., & Szabo, B. (1997). How faculty development programs evaluate their services. Journal of Staff Program and Organizational Development, 15(2), 55–62.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, J., Houston, T., Kolodner, K., Branch, W., Levine, R., & Kern, D. (2004). Teaching the teachers: National survey of faculty development in departments of medicine of US teaching hospitals. Journal of Internal Medicine, 19, 205–214.Google Scholar
  28. Colbert, R. (1997). The comprehensive clinical mentor component of the master’s degree in education. Association for teacher educators. Washington, DC: ERIC.Google Scholar
  29. Collins, A., Brown, J., & Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honour of Robert Glaser (pp. 453–494). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Colliver, J., Kucera, K., & Verhulst, S. (2008). Meta-analysis of quasi-experimental research: Are systematic narrative reviews indicated? Medical Education, 42, 858–865.Google Scholar
  31. Commission, C. (2005). Certification manual. Decatur, GA: Association for Clinical Pastoral Education.Google Scholar
  32. Cox, M. (1999). Peer consultation and faculty learning communities. In C. Knapper, S. Piccinin (Eds.), Using consultants to improve teaching: New directions for teaching and learning (Vol. 79., pp. 39–49). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Cross, K. P., & Steadman, M. (1996). Classroom research: Implementing the scholarship of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  34. Daane, C. (2000). Clinical master teacher program: Teachers’ and interns’ perceptions of supervision with limited university intervention. Action in Teacher Education, 22(1), 93–100.Google Scholar
  35. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing twenty-first century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300–314.Google Scholar
  36. Davis, M., Karunathilake, I., & Harden, R. (2005). AMEE Education Guide no. 28: The development and role of departments in medical education. Medical Teacher, 27, 665–675.Google Scholar
  37. Devlin-Scherer, R., Mitchel, L., & Mueller, M. (2007). Lesson study in a professional development school. Journal of Education for Teaching, 33(1), 119–120.Google Scholar
  38. Dudek, N., Marks, M., Wood, T., & Lee, A. C. (2008). Assessing the quality of supervisors’ completed clinical evaluation reports. Medical Education, 42, 816–822.Google Scholar
  39. Duquette, C. (1994). The role of the cooperating teacher in a school-based teacher education program: Benefits and concerns. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(3), 345–353.Google Scholar
  40. Ensher, E., Heun, C., & Blanchard, A. (2003). Online mentoring and computer-mediated communication: New directions in research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2), 264–288.Google Scholar
  41. Eva, K., & Lingard, L. (2008). What’s next? A guiding question for educators engaged in educational research. Medical Education, 42, 752–754.Google Scholar
  42. Forneris, S., & Peden-McAlpine, C. (2007). Evaluation of a reflective learning intervention to improve critical thinking in novice nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57(4), 410–421.Google Scholar
  43. Frey, T. (2008). Determining the impact of online practicum facilitation for inservice teachers. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(2), 181–210.Google Scholar
  44. Gaff, J. (1975). Toward faculty renewal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Ganser, T. (1996). The cooperating teacher role. Teacher Educator, 31(4), 283–291.Google Scholar
  46. Garret, M., Porter, A., Desimone, L., Birman, B., & Kwang, S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945.Google Scholar
  47. Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Birmingham: SCED.Google Scholar
  48. Giebelhaus, C., & Bowman, C. (2002). Teaching mentors: Is it worth the effort? Journal of Educational Research, 95(41), 246–254.Google Scholar
  49. Gillespie, K., Hilsen, L., & Wadsworth, E. (2001). A guide to faculty development: Practical advice, examples, and resources. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Gozu, A., Windish, D. M., Knight, A. M., Thomas, P. A., Kolodner, K., Bass, E. B., et al. (2008). Long-term follow-up of a 10-month programme in curriculum development for medical educators: A cohort study. Medical Education, 42, 684–692.Google Scholar
  51. Gruppen, L., Frohna, A., Anderson, R., & Lowe, K. (2003). Faculty development for educational leadership and scholarship. Academic Medicine, 78(2), 137–141.Google Scholar
  52. Hall, L., Fisher, C., Musanti, S., & Halquist, D. (2008). Professional development in teacher education: What can we learn from PT3? TechTrends Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 50(3), 25–31.Google Scholar
  53. Hawkins, P., & Shohet, R. (1989). Supervision in the helping professions: An individual, group and organizational approach. Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hicks, O. (1999). A conceptual framework for instructional consultation. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 79, 9–18.Google Scholar
  55. Hitchcock, M. (2002). Introducing professional educators into academic medicine: Stories of exemplars. Advances in Health Science Education, 7, 211–221.Google Scholar
  56. Hitchcock, M., & Anderson, W. A. (2008). On whose shoulders we stand: Lessons from exemplar medical educators. Advances in Health Science Education, 13, 563–569.Google Scholar
  57. Holloway, R. L., Wilkerson, L., & Hejduk, G. (2007). Our back pages: Faculty development and the evolution of family medicine. Family Medicine, 29, 233–236.Google Scholar
  58. Holmboe, E., Hawkins, R., & Huett, S. (2004). Effects of training in direct observation of medical residents’ clinical competence: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 874–881.Google Scholar
  59. Huber, M., & Hutchings, P. (2005). The advancement of learning: Building the teaching commons. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  60. Huggett, K., Warrier, R., & Maio, A. (2007). Early learner perceptions of the attributes of effective preceptors. Advances in Health Science Education, 13, 649–658.Google Scholar
  61. Hunter, C. (2004). Supervised theological field education: A resource manual (p. 69). Parkville: Evangelical Theological Association.Google Scholar
  62. Irby, D. M. (1993). Faculty development and academic vitality. Academic Medicine, 68(10), 760–763.Google Scholar
  63. Jarrett, S., Horner, M., Center, D., & Kane, L. (2008). Curriculum for the development of staff nurses as clinical faculty and scholars. Nurse Educator, 33(6), 268–277.Google Scholar
  64. Jin, L., & Cox, J. (2000). Inquiring minds want to know: Does the clinical supervision course improve cooperating teachers’ supervisory performance? Orlando, FL: Annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators.Google Scholar
  65. Kent, S. (2001). Supervision of student teachers: Practices of cooperating teachers prepared in a clinical supervision course. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 16(3), 228.Google Scholar
  66. Kilbourn, B., Keating, C., Murray, K., & Ross, I. (2005). Balancing feedback and inquiry: How novice observers (supervisors) learn from inquiry into their own practice. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 20(4), 298–318.Google Scholar
  67. Kiraz, E. (2004). Unexpected impact from practicum: Experts learn from the novice. Teacher Education and Practice, 17(1), 71–88.Google Scholar
  68. Koehler, M., Mishra, P., Hershey, K., & Peruski, L. (2004). With a little help from your students: A new model for faculty development and online course design. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(1), 25–56.Google Scholar
  69. Kowalski, K., Horner, M., Carroll, K., Center, D., Foss, K., Jarrett, S., et al. (2007). Nursing clinical faculty revisited: The benefit of developing staff nurses as clinical scholars. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(2), 69–75.Google Scholar
  70. Landt, S. (2002). Cooperating teachers and professional development. Washington, DC: ERIC Document.Google Scholar
  71. Langlois, J., & Thach, S. (2003). Bringing faculty development to community-based preceptors. Academic Medicine, 78(3), 150–155.Google Scholar
  72. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Levine, M. (1992). A conceptual framework for professional practice schools. In M. Levine (Ed.), Professional practice schools: Linking teacher education and school reform (pp. 8–24). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lieberman, A. (1996). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming concepts of professional learning. In M. McLaughlin, I. Oberman (Eds.), Teacher learning: New policies, new practices (pp. 185–201). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  75. Light, R., Singer, J., & Willett, J. (1990). By design: Planning research on higher education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Lock, J. (2006). A new image: Online communities to facilitate teacher professional development. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(4), 663–679.Google Scholar
  77. Loucks-Horsley, S., Love, N., Stiles, K., Mundry, S., & Hewson, P. (2003). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  78. Lund, J., Gurvitch, R., & Metzler, M. (2008). Chapter 7: Influences on cooperating teachers’ adoption of mode-based instruction. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 549–570.Google Scholar
  79. Marshall, J. (2005). Learning about teaching in communities: Lessons for faculty development. Teaching Theology and Religion, 8(1), 29–34.Google Scholar
  80. McIntyre, D., Byrd, D., & Foxx, S. (1996). Field and laboratory experiences. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 171–193). New York: Association of Teacher Educators.Google Scholar
  81. McKinney, J., & Drovdahl, R. (2007). Vocation as discovery: The contribution of internship experiences. Journal of Youth Ministry, 5(2), 51–71.Google Scholar
  82. McLeod, P., Steinert, Y., Meagher, T., & McLeod, A. (2003). The ABCs of pedagogy for clinical teachers. Medical Education, 37, 638–644.Google Scholar
  83. McLeod, P., Steinert, Y., & Snell, L. (2008). Use of retrospective pre/post assessments in faculty development. Medical Education, 42, 513–543.Google Scholar
  84. Melser, N. (2004). The shared supervision of student teachers: Leadership, listening, and lessons learned. The Professional Educator, 26(2), 31–37.Google Scholar
  85. Moon, J. (1999). Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice. London: Rutledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  86. Moon, J. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning. London: Rutledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  87. Nolan, J., Hawkes, B., & Francis, P. (1993). Case Studies: Windows onto clinical supervision. Educational Leadership, 51(2), 51–56.Google Scholar
  88. Notzer, N., & Abramowitz, R. (2008). Can brief workshops improve clinical instruction? Medical Education, 42, 152–156.Google Scholar
  89. Nursing Executive Center. (2008). bridging the preparation-practice gap, Volume II: Best practices for accelerating practice readiness of nursing students. Washington, DC: The Advisory Board.Google Scholar
  90. Ortelli, T. (2008). Characteristics of candidates who have taken the certified nurse educator (CNE) examination: A 2-year review. Nursing Education Perspectives, 29(2), 120–121.Google Scholar
  91. Parsad, B., Lewis, L., & Farris, E. (2000). Teacher preparation and professional development. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  92. Piccinin, S. (1999). How individual consultation affects teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 79, 71–83.Google Scholar
  93. Pichert, J., Stetson, B., Lorenz, R., Boswell, E., & Schlundt, D. (1993). Continuing education on teaching skills for health professionals. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 16(4), 400–416.Google Scholar
  94. Pololi, L., & Franken, R. (2005). Humanizing medical education through faculty development: Linking self-awareness and teaching skills. Medical Education, 39, 154–162.Google Scholar
  95. Reid, B. (1994). The mentor’s experience. In A. Palmer, S. Burns,& C. Bulman (Eds.), Reflective practice in nursing. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  96. Richlin, L., & Essington, A. (2004). Overview of faculty learning communities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 97, 25–39.Google Scholar
  97. Rider, E., Cooke, M., & Lowenstein, D. (2002). The academies collaborative: Sharing a new model for medical education. Academic Medicine, 77(5), 455.Google Scholar
  98. Rubak, S., Mortensen, L., Ringsted, C., & Malling, B. (2008). A controlled study of the short- and long-term effects of a train the trainers course. Medical Education, 42, 693–702.Google Scholar
  99. Saks, A., Uggerslev, K., & Fassina, N. (2006). Socialization tactics and newcomer adjustment: A meta-analytic review and test of a model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 413–446.Google Scholar
  100. Sanchez, B., & Harris, J. (1996). Online mentoring: A success story. Learning and Leading with Technology, 23(8), 57–60.Google Scholar
  101. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  102. Schussler, D. (2006). The altered role of experienced teachers in the professional development school: The present and its possibilities. Issues in Teacher Education, 15(2), 61–75.Google Scholar
  103. Searle, N., Hatem, C., Perkowski, L., & Wilkerson, L. (2006). Why invest in an educational development program? Academic Medicine, 81, 936–940.Google Scholar
  104. Sherer, P. D., Shea, T. P., & Kristensen, E. (2003). Online communities of practice: A catalyst for faculty development. Innovative Higher Education, 27(3), 183–194.Google Scholar
  105. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1–22.Google Scholar
  106. Simpson, D., Bragg, D., Biernat, K., & Treat, R. (2004). Outcome results from the evaluation of the APA/HRSA faculty scholars program. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 4, 103–112.Google Scholar
  107. Skeff, K., Stratos, G., & Mount, J. (2007). Faculty development in medicine: A field in evolution. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 23, 280–285.Google Scholar
  108. Skelton, J., & Buckley, S. (2008). What is the value of good medical education research? A reply to Bligh and Brice. Medical Education, 42, 1044–1045.Google Scholar
  109. Smedley, A., & Penney, D. (2009). A partnership approach to the preparation of preceptors. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(1), 31–36.Google Scholar
  110. Smith, P. (2003). Workplace learning and flexible delivery. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 53–88.Google Scholar
  111. Sorcinelli, M., Austin, A., Eddy, P., & Beach, A. (2008). Creating the future of faculty development: Learning from the past, understanding the present. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  112. Sprague, D. (2006). Research agenda for online teacher professional development. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(4), 657–662.Google Scholar
  113. Sprinthall, N., Reiman, A., & Thies-Sprinthall, L. (1996). Teacher professional development. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 666–703). New York: Association of Teacher Educators.Google Scholar
  114. Stallings, J., & Kowalski, T. (1990). Research on professional development schools. In W. R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 251–256). New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  115. Steckelberg, A., Vasa, S., Kemp, S., Arthaud, T., Asselin, S., Swain, K., et al. (2007). A web-based training model for preparing teachers to supervise paraeducators. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 2–55.Google Scholar
  116. Steinert, Y. (2000). Faculty development in the new millennium: Key challenges and future directions. Medical Teacher, 22, 44–50.Google Scholar
  117. Steinert, Y., Mann, K., Centeno, A., Dolmans, D., Spencer, J., Gelulua, M., et al. (2006). A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education. Medical Teacher, 28, 497–526.Google Scholar
  118. Steinert, Y., & McLeod, P. (2006). From novice to informed educator: The teaching scholars program for educators in the health sciences. Academic Medicine, 81(11), 969–974.Google Scholar
  119. Stritter, F. T., Herbert, W. N. P., & Harward, D. H. (1994). The teaching scholars program: Promoting teaching as scholarship. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 6(3), 207–209.Google Scholar
  120. Svinicki, M. (2002). Faculty development: An investment for the future. In R. Diamond, & B. Adams (Eds.), Field guide for academic leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  121. Tatel, E. (1996). Improving classroom practice: Ways experienced teachers change after supervising student teachers. In M. McLaughlin, & I. Oberman (Eds.), Teacher learning: New policies, new practices (pp. 48–52). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  122. Valiga, T., & Kear, T. (2008). Final reports of the 2008 NLN think tank on transforming clinical nursing education. Indianapolis, IN: National League for Nursing.Google Scholar
  123. Wilkerson, L., & Irby, D. (1998). Strategies for improving teaching practice: A comprehensive approach to faculty development. Academic Medicine, 73, 387–396.Google Scholar
  124. Zinn, L. F. (1997). Supports and barriers to teacher leadership: Reports of teacher leaders. Greeley, CO: Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of TexasAustinUSA
  2. 2.David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations