Skip to main content
Book cover

Biodefence pp 199–221Cite as

Enterosgel: A Novel Organosilicon Enterosorbent with a Wide Range of Medical Applications

Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)

Abstract

Enterosgel® is a polymethylsiloxane based hydrogel produced by ­polycondensation of methylsilicic acid with the loss of water and formation of siloxane bonds (ºSi-O-Siº). Upon organosilica gel drying, a solid mesoporous adsorbent (xerogel) with specific surface area of up to 300 m2  g−1 is formed. The xerogel content in the medicinal preparation Enterosgel is about 7%. The sorption process by Enterosgel follows two mechanisms – molecular adsorption and co-sedimentation in the gel. Compared with activated carbons most commonly used as oral sorbents (enterosorbents), Enterosgel possesses lower capacity towards compounds with molecular weight below 1,500 Da, but it is a much more potent adsorbent than activated carbons in its binding ability towards high molecular weight compounds such as proteins and bacterial endotoxins. In many experimental and clinical studies which evaluated oral use of Enterosgel for treatment of wound infection, abdominal sepsis, ischemic hypoxia, acute intestinal infections, viral hepatitis, complications of chemo- and radiotherapy of cancer, it has been demonstrated that enterosorption led to normalization of intestinal microflora, suppression of lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of plasma proteins, restoration of detoxifying and synthetic liver functions, improvement of renal functions, as well as decreased manifestations of systemic toxicity. These useful sorptive properties along with positive clinical results allow the consideration of Enterosgel as an effective enterosorbent and open a wide potential for its use in combined treatment of diseases requiring long-term oral chemotherapy, such as tuberculosis, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis and viral hepatitis C.

Keywords

  • Oral sorption (enterosorption)
  • Polymethylsiloxane
  • hydrogel
  • Chemotherapy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-0217-2_21
  • Chapter length: 23 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-007-0217-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 21.1
Fig. 21.2

References

  1. Nikolaev V, Strelko V, Korovin Yu et al (1982) Theoretical basis and practical use of enterosorption method. In: Sorption methods of detoxication and immunocorrection in medicine, Kharkiv, Ukraine (In Russian), pp 112–114

    Google Scholar 

  2. Nikolaev V (1984) Method of hemocarboperfusion in experiment and clinic. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (In Russian), 359 pp

    Google Scholar 

  3. Nikolaev V (1990) Peroral application of synthetic activated charcoal in USSR. Biomat Art Cells Art Org 4:555–568

    Google Scholar 

  4. Belyakov N, Martinyuk V, Fridman M (1991) Peculiarities of use of enterosorption in presurgical period in patients with large intestine. In: Belyakov N (Ed) Enterosorption, Center of sorption technologies publ., St-Petersburg (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Nikolaev V, Mikhalovsky S, Gurina N (2005) Modern enterosorbents and mechanisms of their action. Efferentnaya Therapiya 4:3–17 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Wilson M (2003) Clay: Mineralogical and related characteristics of geophagic materials. J Chem Ecol 7:1525–1547

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Dominy NJ, Davoust E, Minekus M (2004) Adaptive function of soil consumption: an in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine. J Exp Biol 207(2):319–324

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Slinyakova I, Denisova T (1988) Organosilicon adsorbents. Synthesis, properties, and applications. Naukova Dumka, Kiyv (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Shevchenko Yu, Dushanin B, Yashina N (1996) New silicon compounds – porous organosilicon matrices for technology and medicine. In: Silicon for Chemical Industry. Sandefjord, Norway

    Google Scholar 

  10. Nikolaev V, Olestchuk O, Klishch I et al (2009) Administration of preparation  «  Enterosgel  »  for prophylaxis of oxidative stress at acute blood loss. Visnyk Naukovykh Doslidzhen’ 1:69–71 (In Ukrainian)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Sarnatskaya V, Lindup W, Walther P et al (2002) Albumin, bilirubin and activated carbon: New edges of an old triangle. Art Cells Blood Subs and Immob Biotech 2:113–127

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Sarnatskaya V, Yushko L, Nikolaev A et al (2007) New approaches to the removal of protein-bound toxins from blood plasma of uremic patients. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 3:287–308

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Nikolaeva LG (1993) Microbiological aspects of use of enterosorbents in acute enteric infections. Likarska Sprava 8:81–83 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dzyublik I, Shun’ko E, Barbova A (1997) Use of Enterosgel for treatment of rotavirus infections in newborns. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 17–18

    Google Scholar 

  15. Valenskaya L, Alexeenko L, Nikityuk S (1997) Enterosgel in therapy of acute dysentheriae in children. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Кiyv (In Russian), pp 45–46

    Google Scholar 

  16. Putilina O, Safronova T, Piskareva I (2000) Comparative characteristic of efficacy of enterosorbents of different groups in Salmonella infection. In: Comparative characteristic of efficacy of enterosorbents of different groups in Salmonella infection. In: Clinical use of Enterosgel preparation in patients with pathology of organs of digestive system, (In Russian), pp 121–122

    Google Scholar 

  17. Sukhov Yu, Gebesh V, Golub A (2007) Influence of enterosorption on the level of proinflammatory cytokines upon intestinal infection and measles. Klin Immunologiya 6:76–78 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Andreichin M, Koncha V, Klyimyuk S (2010) Influence of Enterosgel preparation on cytolysis of hepatocutes and endothelial disfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In press (In Ukrainian)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Moroz L, Paliy I (2006) Study of influence of detoxicant Enterosgel on clinical and laboratory indexes in acute viral hepatitis. In: Medico-biological aspects of enterosorbent “Enterosgel” Use for therapy of different diseases, Kyiv (In Russian), pp 71–76

    Google Scholar 

  20. Boyarskaya G, Osadchaya O, Zhernov A, Kovalenko O (2006) Use of enterosorbent Enterosgel in combined therapy of enteric disbacteriosis in children with burn disease. In: Medico-biological aspects of enterosorbent “Enterosgel” Use for therapy of different ­diseases, Kyiv (In Russian), pp 83–90

    Google Scholar 

  21. Yastremskaya S, Klishch I, Nikolaev V et al (2010) Evaluation of efficacy of administration of Enterosgel preparation in medicinal form – paste for oral use in animals with peptic gastric ulcer. Comparative characteristic of efficacy of enterosorbents of different groups in Salmonella infection. In: Clinical use of Enterosgel preparation in patients with pathology of organs of digestive system(in Ukrainian)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Yastremskaya S, Klishch I, Nikolaev V et al (2010) Efficacy of use of Enterosgel enterosorbent in experimental ulcerative colitis. In press (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Tkach S (2006) Efficacy of enterosorbent Enterosgel in combined antihelicobacter therapy of peptic ulcer. Zhurnal Praktychnogo Likarya 5–6:55–58 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Osadchaya O, Boyarskaya G, Sheiman B et al (2008) Informativity of numerical methods of evaluation of endogenous intoxication in patients with severe burns with the use of enterosorption. Klinichna Imunologiya, Alergologiya, Infectologiya 1:77–79 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gorchakova N, Chekman I, Surok V et al (2005) Study of pharmacological activity and safety of Enterosgel preparation. Mystetstvo Likuvannya 4:5–10 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Grek O, Kolpakov M, Bashkirov Yu et al (2000) Use of Enterosgel for correction of disturbance of liver function in experimental chronic toxic hepatitis. In: Clinical use of Enterosgel preparation in patients with pathology of organs of digestive system, Moscow (In Russian), pp 63–66

    Google Scholar 

  27. Vozianova Zh, Korchinskiy N, Pashnovaya E et al (1990) Enterosorption in combined therapy of patients with viral hepatitis. Vrachebnoe Delo 4:117–120 (In Russian)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Garnitskaya L (1994) Use of Enterosgel in combined therapy of patients with viral hepatitis B on the background of mechanical jaundice. Vrachebnoe Delo 5–6:138–140 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Nikityuk S, Alexeenko L, Volynska L (1997) Correction of immunological disbalance in children with viral hepatitis A using Enterosgel. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), p 59

    Google Scholar 

  30. Olkhovnikova E, Gavrilova N, Golovanova L (1999) Enterosgel preparation in treatment of viral hepatitis in children. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp. 44–45

    Google Scholar 

  31. Myasnikov V (2002) Report on the results of clinical trials of Enterosgel preparation in therapy of patients with viral hepatitis, part IV. Kreoma Publ, Kyiv (In Russian), pp 22–23

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gebesh V, Semenchenko I (2000) Use of Enterosgel in therapy of patients with mechanical jaundice. In: Clinical use of Enterosgel preparation in patients with pathology of organs of digestive system, Moscow, (In Russian), pp 66–68

    Google Scholar 

  33. Moroz L, Paliy I, Tkachenko T (2006) Use of Enterosgel preparation in combined therapy of patients with acute viral hepatitis. In: Medico-biological aspects of enterosorbent “Enterosgel” use for therapy of different diseases, Kyiv (In Russian), pp 65–70

    Google Scholar 

  34. Skalich I, Zhigarenko N (1998) Efficacy of enterosorbents and antioxidants in therapy of chronic diseases of liver of alcoholic etiology. Vrachebnoe Delo 5:93–95 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Fira L, Nikolaev V, Klishch I et al (2010) Study of efficacy of Enterosgel preparation in the treatment of experimental renal insufficiency. In press (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kolesnik M (1995) Efferent methods in combined therapy of patients with glomerulonephritis. Thesis for degree of Dr Med Sci, Kyiv (In Ukrainian)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Shostka G, Riabov S, Lukichev B et al (1984) Oral sorbents in the treatment of chronic renal failure. Ter Arkh 7:58–63 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Valentis M (1999) Use of Enterosgel preparation in combined therapy of patients with chronic renal insufficiency. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), p 18

    Google Scholar 

  39. Sanaka T, Sugino N, Teraoka S et al (1988) Therapeutic effects of oral sorbent in undialyzed uremia. Am J Kidney Dis 2:97–103

    Google Scholar 

  40. Nakagawa N, Hasebe N, Sumitomo K et al (2006) An oral adsorbent, AST-120, suppresses oxidative stress in uremic rats. Am J Nephrol 5:455–461

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Tchernyashova V, Olestchuk O, Nikolaev V et al (2008) Study of efficacy of use of Enterosgel in a model of experimental streptozotocine diabetes. Visnyk Farmakologii i Farmatsii 3:33–37 (In Ukrainian)

    Google Scholar 

  42. Pokotylo O, Yastremskaya S, Nikolaev V et al (2010) Influence of enterosorbent Enterosgel on indexes of lipid exchange in experimental hypercholesterolemia. In press (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  43. Dolzhenko M, Shershneva O, Perepel’chenko N, Potashev S (2006) Optimization of therapy of coronary syndrome with the fall of ST segment in patients with diabetes mellitus of type II by method of enterosorption. News of Medicine and Pharmacy № 1-2:8–9

    Google Scholar 

  44. Dolzhenko M, Shipulin V, Sokolova L (2005) Role of enterosorption in hypolipidemic therapy of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with concominant IHD and diabetes mellitus type II. Mystetstvo Likuvannya 9:65–66 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  45. Dotsenko E, Zhiznevskaya T (1999) Influence of Enterosgel preparation on the state of ­lipid-transporting system in patients with hyperlipidemia. In: Proceedings of the conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 22–23

    Google Scholar 

  46. Nedelyaeva A (2001) Comparative physiological analysis of different sorbents in the model oh thermal injury. In: Collection of Reports on the use of Enterosgel preparation in medicine, part I, Moscow (In Russian), pp 28–37

    Google Scholar 

  47. Naida I, Zapadnyuk V, Povstyanoy N et al (1993) Age-related peculiarities of natural mechanisms of detoxication and curative action of Enterosgel in burn disease. Klinichna Khirurgiya 9-10:53–56, In Russian

    Google Scholar 

  48. Osadchaya O, Boyarskaya G (2009) Effect of enterosorption on humoral immunity of patients with nonspecific ulcerative colitis. Consilium Medicum (In Ukrainian) 5(3):20–21

    Google Scholar 

  49. Losytska V, Naida I, Tsiganov V (1997) Toxin-binding ability of blood serum proteins in burned patients with the use of Enterosgel. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in ­prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 121–122

    Google Scholar 

  50. Sheiman B, Osadchaya O, Boyarskaya G et al (2007) Use of enterosorption for prophylaxis of autoimmune processes in patients with severe burns. Klinichna Imunologiya, Alergologiya, Infectologiya 3:104–106 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  51. Sheiman B, Osadchaya O, Boyarskaya G et al (2007) Influence of enterosorption on functional activity of factors of antimicrobial resistance in patients with severe burns. Klinichna Imunologiya, Alergologiya, Infectologiya 4:61–63 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  52. Osadchaya O, Boyarskaya G, Zheriev A, Sheiman B (2006) Study of efficacy of use of Enterosgel preparation in patients upon endogenous intoxication. In: Medico-biological aspects of enterosorbent “Enterosgel” use for therapy of different diseases, Kyiv (In Russian), pp 91–96

    Google Scholar 

  53. Maschenko V (1997) Influence of enterosorption on microbiocenosis in children with severe and extremely severe burn trauma. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 120–121

    Google Scholar 

  54. Pasechko N, Polivanova L (1997) Influence of enterosorbents on structural components of intestine upon severe thermal burns of skin. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 108-111

    Google Scholar 

  55. Osadchaya O (2008) Role of enterosorption in treatment of metabolic intoxication in patients with severe burns. Liki Ukraini 7:56–58, In Russian

    Google Scholar 

  56. Nikonov V, Nud’ga A, Kovaleva E (2007) “Fortrans-enterin-eubiotin” therapeutic complex for detoxication of human organism. In: Medico-biological aspects of enterosorbent “Enterosgel” use for therapy of different diseases, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 22–26

    Google Scholar 

  57. Luzin V (2001) Surgical aspects of syndrome of enteric insufficiency. In: Collection of Reports on the use of Enterosgel preparation in medicine, part II, Moscow (In Russian), pp 5-9

    Google Scholar 

  58. Chernysh T (2001) Enterosorption with Enterosgel for treatment of advanced peritonitis. In: Collection of Reports on the use of enterosgel preparation in medicine, part II, Moscow, (In Russian), pp 10–13

    Google Scholar 

  59. Lebedev A, Lyaschenko Yu, Petukhov A (2001) Use of Enterosgel in patients with intestinal obstruction. In: Collection of Reports on the use of Enterosgel preparation in medicine, part II, Moscow (In Russian), pp 23–25

    Google Scholar 

  60. Smiyan I, Pavlishin G, Listchenko N (1997) Enterosgel in combined therapy of newborns with purulent-septic pathologies. In: Biosorption Methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 46–47

    Google Scholar 

  61. Ageev T, Kaledin V, Nikolin V (2001) Effects of Enterosgel during chemotherapy of experimental lymphosarcoma. In: Collection of Reports on the use of Enterosgel preparation in medicine, part III, Moscow (In Russian), pp 22–23

    Google Scholar 

  62. Kaban O, Gunina L, Shevchenko Yu et al (2001) Efficacy and perspective of use of preparations on the basis of hydrogel and xerogel of methylsilicic acid in patients with malignant neoplasm of digestive tract. Klinichna Khirurgiya 1:34–37 (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  63. Kaban O, Gunina L, Znamenskiy V et al (1997) Influence of Enterosgel on endogenous intoxication and expression of dysbacteriosis during combined therapy of patients with cancer of digestive tract. Кreoma Publ, Kiyv (In Russian), pp 31–33

    Google Scholar 

  64. Gunina L, Litvinenko A (1997) Detoxicating effect of Enterosgel upon polychemotherapy of patients with advanced tumors of peritoneal cavity. Кreoma Publ, Kiyv (In Russian), pp 33–35

    Google Scholar 

  65. Guta L, Temchenko O, Sopel’ V, Matsela N (1997) Use of silicon-organic sorbents for endogenous intoxication syndrome correction. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Кiyv (In Russian), p 35

    Google Scholar 

  66. Loseva M, Pospelov T, Mishenin A et al (1999) Efficacy of Enterosgel use in remission therapy in patients with acute leukosis. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 14-15

    Google Scholar 

  67. Poberezhnik O, Osolodchenko T, Kutneevich Ya, et al. (1997) Use of immobilized medicinal preparations in combined therapy of patients with eczema. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 59-60

    Google Scholar 

  68. Baranov A, Geppe N, Karpushkina A (1997) Efficacy of Enterosgel in therapy of bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis in children. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp. 50-52

    Google Scholar 

  69. Banadina N (1997) Influence of various types of sorption therapy on functional state of small intestine of children suffering from bronchial asthma. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference., Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 56-57

    Google Scholar 

  70. Batov V (2000) Place of Enterosgel preparation in combined therapy of neurodermitis. In: Clinical use of Enterosgel preparation in patients with pathology of organs of digestive system, Moscow (In Russian), pp 74–75

    Google Scholar 

  71. Paltsev A (1999) Enterosgel in clinic of innate pathologies...In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 53–57

    Google Scholar 

  72. Gusak Yu, Gusak N, Pchelintsev V, Tarasova L (1999) Enterosgel in treatment of inflammatory pathologies in gynecology and obstetrics. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 41–43

    Google Scholar 

  73. Ilyenko L, Petrovich E (a) (2002) Use of Enterosgel in combined therapy of inflammatory pathologies of uterus and uterine adnexa. In: Collection of Reports on the Use of Enterosgel Preparation in Medicine, part V, Moscow (In Russian), pp 15–25

    Google Scholar 

  74. Ilyenko L, Petrovich E (b) (2002) Evaluation of efficacy of use of sorbent Enterosgel in combined therapy of recurrent forms of vaginal candidosis. In: Collection of Reports on the Use of Enterosgel Preparation in Medicine, part V, Moscow (In Russian), pp 26–34

    Google Scholar 

  75. Gusak Yu, Morosov V, Chikin V et al (2002) Use of Enterosgel preparation in postsurgical period in obstetric. In: Collection of Reports on the Use of Enterosgel Preparation in Medicine, part V, Moscow (In Russian), pp 46–49

    Google Scholar 

  76. Sukharevskaya T, Nikiforova N (1999) Use of Enterosgel preparation in optimization of etiotropic therapy of chronic professional intoxications. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 30–33

    Google Scholar 

  77. Shpagina L, Gerasimenko O, Bobrov S (1999) Comparative evaluation of efficacy of use of enterosorbents in therapy of chronic professional intoxications. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 37–39

    Google Scholar 

  78. Shpagina L, Gerasimenko O, Tretyakov S et al (1999) Use of different enterosorbents for therapy of chronic professional intoxications. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption Technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), p 57

    Google Scholar 

  79. Poteryaeva A (2001) Use of Enterosgel in clinic for treatment of occupational diseases. Methodical Recommendations, Moscow, (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  80. Pushkareva T, Chuprikov A (1997) Use of enterosorption in combined therapy of schizophrenia. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp. 77–78

    Google Scholar 

  81. Mosunov A, Pozdnyakov A (1999) Clinical study of the efficacy of Enterosgel preparation in diffuse liver pathology accompanied by hepato-depressive syndrome. In: Proceedings of the Conference  «  Enterosgel and Enterosorption technology in Medicine», Novosibirsk – Moscow (In Russian), pp 15–18

    Google Scholar 

  82. Kaydulov A, Vasylenko I (1997) Use of Enterosgel for treatment and mitigation of alcoholic intoxication. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 74–76

    Google Scholar 

  83. Povoroznyuk V, Nikonenko P, Bayandina E et al (1997) Use of enterosorbent  «  Enterosgel  »  in combined therapy of osteoporosis. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 43–46

    Google Scholar 

  84. Babinina L, Viznyak N, Matyukha L (1997) Enterosorbents in combined therapy of reactive arthritis. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), pp 78–79

    Google Scholar 

  85. Pasyaka N (1997) State of LPO processes and AOS in children with severe form of acute pneumonia treated with Enterosgel. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), p 58

    Google Scholar 

  86. Pasyaka N (1997) Use of Enterosgel for correction of endocytosis in children of early age suffering from severe form of acute pneumonia. In: Biosorption methods and preparations in prophylactic and therapeutic practice, First Conference, Kyiv (In Ukrainian), p 57

    Google Scholar 

  87. Yurchenko O, Fedorenko S, Nikolaev V et al (2010) Use of enterosorbent Enterosgel in combined therapy of HIV-infected patients. In press (In Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  88. Guadalupe M, Reay E, Sankaran S et al (2003) Severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut lymphoid tissue during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and substantial delay in restoration following highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 21:11708–11717

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  89. Guadalupe M, Sankaran S, George MD et al (2006) Viral suppression and immune restoration in the gastrointestinal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients initiating therapy during primary or chronic infection. J Virol 16:8236–8247

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Volodymyr G. Nikolaev .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this paper

Cite this paper

Nikolaev, V.G. (2011). Enterosgel: A Novel Organosilicon Enterosorbent with a Wide Range of Medical Applications. In: Mikhalovsky, S., Khajibaev, A. (eds) Biodefence. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0217-2_21

Download citation