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Coral Calcification, Cells to Reefs

  • Denis AllemandEmail author
  • Éric Tambutté
  • Didier Zoccola
  • Sylvie Tambutté
Chapter

Abstract

In spite of more than one century and half of studies, mechanisms of coral biomineralization, leading to coral growth and reef formation, still remain poorly known, although major global threats to coral reefs, such as ocean acidification, primarily affect this process. Coral skeletons are used as environmental archives but the vital processes that govern incorporation of trace elements and stable isotope are still unknown. Our knowledge on coral physiology is restricted to the organismal level due to the lack of appropriate cell model, however the advent of new approaches, such as coral genomic, is changing drastically our knowledge on these animals even if only a few data are available concerning the field of biomineralization. This chapter reviews our present knowledge and discusses the different theories on coral calcification, from the molecular to the reef level. Conclusion is presented in a list of key issues to be resolved in order to understand the intimate mechanisms of calcification of corals, essential to determine the origin of the sensitivity of corals to ocean acidification, to improve paleoceanographic reconstructions or coral reef management, or “just” to understand how genes of a soft organism control the formation of an extracellular 3D-skeleton.

Keywords

Calcification biomineralization physiology calicodermis ion transport Ca2+-ATPase organic matrix carbonic anhydrase amorphous calcium carbonate coral fibers light-enhanced calcification (LEC) galaxin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank our colleagues for stimulating discussions and comments on part of our manuscript, particularly to Anne Cohen, Jean-Pierre Cuif, Jonathan Erez, Maoz Fine, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Anne Juillet-Leclerc, Nicole Mayer-Gostan, Anders Meibom, Patrick Payan, Stéphanie Reynaud, and Alina Szmant. We are grateful to Alexander Venn for his comments on both the content and English form. We also thank Paola Furla, Aurélie Moya, Lucilia Pereira-Mouriès, and Sandrine Puverel, who shared our passion for coral physiology during their doctoral or postdoctoral research and Christian Söllner for the gift of antibodies. We also thank Séverine Lotto, Nathalie Techer and Natacha Segonds for their excellent technical work and the staff of the library of the Oceanographic museum as well as that of aquarium for their continuous help. Finally, we also remember all the stimulating discussions with Len Muscatine in the lab or in front of a glass of French swine during his visits in Monaco and we dedicate this review to him. Work performed at the Scientific Center of Monaco was funded by the Government of the Principality of Monaco.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denis Allemand
    • 1
    Email author
  • Éric Tambutté
    • 1
  • Didier Zoccola
    • 1
  • Sylvie Tambutté
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre Scientifique de MonacoMonacoPrincipality of Monaco

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