Law in the Virtual Battlespace: The Tallin Manual and the Jus in Bello

Chapter
Part of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law book series (YIHL, volume 15)

Abstract

This paper aims to offer some critical thoughts on the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare as regards its approach to the law of armed conflict. The paper makes some observations on the methodology of drafting the Manual and highlights a few issues of substantive law that illustrate the difficulties in applying the law of armed conflict to cyber operations.

Keywords

Attack Cyber warfare Manuals on the law of armed conflict Principle of distinction Military occupation Tallinn Manual Neutrality 

References

  1. Byström K (ed) (2005) International Expert Conference on Computer Network Attacks and the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, 1719 November 2004, Stockholm, Sweden: Proceedings of the Conference. Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  2. Dinstein Y (2012) ‘The Principle of Distinction and Cyber War in International Armed Conflicts’, Journal of Conflict & Security Law 17:261–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dörmann K (2005) ‘The Applicability of the Additional Protocols to Computer Network Attacks: An ICRC Approach’, in Byström K (ed.), International Expert Conference on Computer Network Attacks and the Applicability of International Humanitarian Law, 1719 November 2004, Stockholm, Sweden: Proceedings of the Conference. Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, 139–153.Google Scholar
  4. Doswald-Beck L (1995) ‘San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflict at Sea’, International Review of the Red Cross no 309, 35:583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harrison Dinniss HA (2011) ‘Attacks and Operations: The Debate over Computer Network “Attacks”’, presented at New Technologies, Old Law: Applying International Humanitarian Law in a New Technological Age, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 28–29 November 2011.Google Scholar
  6. Harrison Dinniss HA (2012) Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hathaway OA, Crootof R, Levitz P, Nix H, Nowlan A, Perdue W, and Spiegel J (2012) ‘The Law of Cyber-Attack’, California Law Review 100:817–885.Google Scholar
  8. Heintschel von Heinegg W (2012) ‘Neutrality in Cyberspace’, in Czosseck C, Ottis R and Ziolkowski K (eds), (2012) 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict: Proceedings. NATO CCD COE Publications, Tallinn, 35–46.Google Scholar
  9. Kodar E (2012) ‘Applying the Law of Armed Conflict to Cyber Attacks: From the Martens Clause to Additional Protocol I’, in Liivoja R and Saumets A (eds), The Law of Armed Conflict: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, Tartu University Press: Tartu, 107–132.Google Scholar
  10. Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare (2009) Harvard Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research.Google Scholar
  11. Manual on the Law of Non-International Armed Conflict (2006) International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo.Google Scholar
  12. Melzer N (2011) ‘Cyber Operations and Jus in Bello’, Disarmament Forum no 4, 3–17.Google Scholar
  13. Pilloud C and de Preux J (1987) ‘Protocol I—Article 49—Definition of Attacks and Scope of Application’, in Sandoz Y, Swinarski C, Zimmermann B (eds), Commentary on the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions. ICRC & Martinus Nijhoff, Geneva, 601–608.Google Scholar
  14. San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (1994) International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo.Google Scholar
  15. Schmitt MN (2002a) ‘Wired Warfare: Computer Network Attack and Jus in Bello’, International Review of the Red Cross no 846, 84:365–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmitt MN (ed) (2002b) Computer Network Attack and International Law. Naval War College Press, Newport, RI.Google Scholar
  17. Schmitt MN (2011) ‘Cyber Operations and the Jus in Bello: Key Issues’, in Pedrozo RA and Wollschlaeger DP (eds), International Law and the Changing Character of War. Naval War College Press, Newport, RI, 89–110.Google Scholar
  18. Schmitt MN (2012) ‘Classification of Cyber Conflict’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law 17:245-260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare (2013) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Tikk E, Kaska K and Vihul L (2010) International Cyber Incidents: Legal Considerations. CCD COE Publications, Tallinn.Google Scholar
  21. Turns D (2012) ‘Cyber Warfare and the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities’, Journal of Conflict and Security Law 17:279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. UK Ministry of Defence (2004) The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. US Department of Defense (2011) Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. ASSER PRESS, The Hague, The Netherlands, and the author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne Law SchoolAsia Pacific Centre for Military LawMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations