Victims, Excombatants and the Communities: Irreconcilable Demands or a Dangerous Convergence?

Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, scholars and practitioners of transitional justice and international criminal justice have increasingly emphasised the role of victims in post-atrocity justice processes, not only as witnesses but as active participants and beneficiaries of related reparations processes. At the same time, internationally run peacebuilding processes have developed detailed proceedings for disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of excombatants, which include education and training, as well as frequent cash or other benefits. Yet, while these processes pertain to the same conflict, practitioners of each are not always sufficiently aware of the real or potential clashes between them, or the risks of overlap or linking them. Based on empirical evidence from a range of post-atrocity processes, this chapter seeks to outline these risks.

Keywords

Victim-centred justice Restorative justice DDR Transitional justice Peacebuilding International criminal tribunals 

References

  1. Baumgartner E (2008) Aspects of victim participation in the proceedings of the International Criminal Court. Int Rev Red Cross 90:409–440Google Scholar
  2. Beck E, Kropf NP, Blume Leonard P (eds) (2010) Social work and restorative justice: skills for dialogue, peacemaking, and reconciliation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett C (2006) Taking the sincerity out of saying sorry: restorative justice as ritual. J Appl Philos 23:127–143Google Scholar
  4. de Feyter K, Parmentier S, Bossuyt M, Lemmens P (eds) (2005) Out of the ashes: reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations. Intersentia, AntwerpenGoogle Scholar
  5. de Greiff P (ed) (2006) The handbook of reparations. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Findlay M (2009) Activating a victim constituency in International Criminal Justice. Int J Transitional Justice 3:183–206Google Scholar
  7. García-Godos J (2006) Citizenship, conflict and reconstruction: a case-study of the effects of armed conflict on peasant-state relations in Tambo, Peru. Unipub forlag, OsloGoogle Scholar
  8. García-Godos J (2008) Victim reparations in the Peruvian Truth Commission and the challenge of historical interpretation. Int J Transitional Justice 2:62–83Google Scholar
  9. García-Godos J (2012) Colombia: accountability and DDR in the pursuit of peace? In: Sriram CL, García-Godos J, Herman J, Martin-Ortega O (eds) Transitional justice and peacebuilding on the ground: victims and excombatants. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. García-Godos J, Lid K AO (2010) Transitional justice and victims’ rights before the end of a conflict: the unusual case of Colombia. J Latin Am Stud 42:487–526Google Scholar
  11. Gillett M (2009) Victim participation at the International Criminal Court. Aust Int Law J 16:29–46Google Scholar
  12. Hayner P (2000) Unspeakable truths: confronting state terror and atrocity. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Henham R (2004) Some reflections on the role of victims in the international criminal trial process. Int Rev Vict 11:201–224Google Scholar
  14. Humphrey M (2003) From victim to victimhood: truth commissions and trials as rituals of political transition and individual healing. Aust J Anthropol 14:171–187Google Scholar
  15. Kritz N (1995) Transitional justice: how emerging democracies reckon with former regimes. US Institute of Peace, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  16. Laplante LJ, Theidon K (2007) Truth with consequences: justice and reparations in post-truth commission Peru. Hum Rights Q 29:228–250Google Scholar
  17. Llewellyn J (2008) Restorative justice and peacebuilding in post-conflict societies. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Studies Association San Francisco. www.humansecuritygateway.com/showRecord_fr.php?RecordId=23155. Accessed 31 May 2012
  18. Mani R (2006) Reparations as a component of transitional justice: pursuing “reparative justice” in the aftermath of violent conflict. In: de Feyter K, Parmentier S, Bossuyt M, Lemmens P (eds) Out of the ashes: reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations. Intersentia, Antwerpen, pp. 53–82Google Scholar
  19. McCarthy C (2009) Reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and Reparative Justice Theory. Int J Transitional Justice 3:250–271Google Scholar
  20. McKay S (2004) Reconstructing fragile lives: girls’ social reintegration in northern Uganda and Sierra Leone. Gender Dev 12:19–30Google Scholar
  21. McKnight J (2010) Child soldiers in Africa: a global approach to human rights protection, enforcement, and post-conflict reintegration. Afr J Int Comp Law 18:113–142Google Scholar
  22. Muggah R (2009) Security and post-conflict reconstruction: dealing with fighters in the aftermath of war. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Muggah R (2010) Innovations in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration policy and research: reflections on the last decade, NUPI Working Paper 774, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo. www.english.nupi.no/Publications/Working-Papers/2010/Innovations-in-disarmament-demobilization-and-reintegration-policy-and-research. Accessed 31 May 2012
  24. Nwogu NW (2010) When and why it started: deconstructing victim-centered truth commissions in the context of ethnicity-based conflict. Int J Transitional Justice 4:275–289Google Scholar
  25. Quinn JR (2009) Reconciliation(s): transitional justice in postconflict societies. McGill-Queens University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  26. Rauschenbach M, Scalia D (2008) Victims and international criminal justice: a vexed question? Int Rev Red Cross 90:441–459Google Scholar
  27. Robins S (2011) Towards victim-centred transitional justice: understanding the needs of families of the disappeared in postconflict Nepal. Int J Transitional Justice 5:75–98Google Scholar
  28. Rubio-Marín R, de Greiff P (2007) Women and reparations. Int J Transitional Justice 1:318–337Google Scholar
  29. Shelton D (2006) The United Nations draft principles on reparations for human rights violations: context and content. In: de Feyter K, Parmentier S, Bossuyt M, Lemmens P (eds) Out of the ashes: reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations. Intersentia, Antwerpen, pp. 11–33Google Scholar
  30. Sriram CL (2004) Confronting past human rights violations: justice versus peace in times of transition. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Sriram CL (2005) Globalizing justice for mass atrocities: a revolution in accountability. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Sriram CL (2012) Victim-centred justice and DDR in Sierra Leone. In: Sriram CL, García-Godos J, Herman J, Martin-Ortega O (eds) Transitional justice and peacebuilding on the ground: victims and excombatants. Routledge, London, pp. 159–177Google Scholar
  33. Sriram CL, Herman J (2009) DDR and transitional justice: bridging the divide? J Confl Sec Dev 9:455–474Google Scholar
  34. Sriram CL, García-Godos J, Herman J, Martin-Ortega O (eds) (2012) Transitional justice and peacebuilding on the ground: victims and excombatants. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Stovel L, Valiñas M (2010) Restorative justice after mass violence, UNICEF Innocenti Working Paper, Florence. www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/iwp_2010_15.pdf. Accessed 31 May 2012
  36. Straus S, Waldorf L (eds) (2011) Remaking Rwanda: state building and human rights after mass violence. University of Wisconsin Press, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  37. Teitel R (2000) Transitional justice. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Theidon K (2007) Transitional subjects: the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants in Colombia. Int J Transitional Justice 1:66–90Google Scholar
  39. Thomson S (2011) Reeducation for reconciliation. In: Straus S, Waldorf L (eds) Remaking Rwanda: state building and human rights after mass violence. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 331–339Google Scholar
  40. United Nations (2005a) Basic principles and guidelines on the right to a remedy and reparation for victims of gross violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, UN General Assembly Resolution 147, UN GA, 60th Session, UN Doc A/RES/60/147Google Scholar
  41. United Nations (2005b) Draft updated set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through action to combat impunity, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1Google Scholar
  42. United Nations (2005c) Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters, United Nations Economic and Social Council, UN Doc. E/CN.15/2002/5/Add.1Google Scholar
  43. United Nations (2006a) Handbook on restorative justice programmes. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  44. United Nations (2006b) Integrated disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration standards, module 6.20. www.unddr.org/iddrs/06/20.php. Accessed 3 April 2012
  45. United Nations (2006c) Report of the secretary general on disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, UN Doc. A/60/75Google Scholar
  46. Vandeginste S, Sriram C L (2011) Power sharing and transitional justice: a clash of paradigms? Glob Gov 17:489–505Google Scholar
  47. Waldorf L (2012) Just peace: integrating transitional justice and DDR. In: Sriram CL, García-Godos J, Herman J, Martin-Ortega O (eds) Transitional justice and peacebuilding on the ground: victims and excombatants. Routledge, London, pp. 62–80Google Scholar
  48. Wiebelhaus-Brahm E (2010) Truth commissions and transitional societies: the impact on human rights and democracy. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. ASSER PRESS, The Hague, The Netherlands, and the authors 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations