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The National Legal Frameworks Relating to Disaster Response: How is Incoming International Assistance Regulated?

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Abstract

This chapter focuses on the domestic legal frameworks relating to disaster response of a number of States which have been hit by major disasters in the past few years, namely Indonesia, the United States, the Philippines, Haiti, and Japan. It analyzes the provisions regulating incoming international assistance and investigates (1) how they are applied in practice and (2) whether they are consistent with the IFRC’s Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance and the treaty obligations of the States in question. The author finds that the legal preparedness for receiving international assistance varies significantly in the five countries taken into consideration and argues that even the legislation of those apparently best prepared can be improved. She concludes that the legal frameworks relating to disaster response in the countries considered reveal a reactive approach to regulatory problems in international relief operations and suggests instead that a proactive approach to those problems should be adopted.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, Extract from the Final Report of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (A/CONF.206/6), United Nations, available at http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/1037. Accessed 23 January 2012. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations in a number of resolutions, the most recent of which is—at the time of writing—resolution 65/264 of 21 June 2011.

  2. 2.

    Ibid., 6.

  3. 3.

    Ibid.

  4. 4.

    IFRC, Introduction to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance, Geneva, 2008, available at http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/idrl/idrl-guidelines/, 8 et seq. Accessed 23 January 2012. They too were endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations in a number of resolutions, the most recent being—at the time of writing—resolution 65/264 of 21 June 2011.

  5. 5.

    Ibid., 4 et seq.

  6. 6.

    IFRC, OCHA, IPU, Model Act for the Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance, Pilot Version, Geneva, November 2011, available at http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/idrl/disaster-law-at-the-31st-international-conference/. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  7. 7.

    Ibid., iv.

  8. 8.

    ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response, done at Vientiane (Lao People’s Democratic Republic) on 26 July 2005, entered into force on 24 December 2009, available at http://www.aseansec.org/17579.htm. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  9. 9.

    Inter-American Convention to Facilitate Disaster Assistance, done at Santiago (Chile) on 7 June 1991, entered into force on 16 October 1996, available at http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-54.html. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  10. 10.

    Agreement Establishing the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA), done at St. Johns (Antigua and Barbuda) on 1 July 2008, provisionally applied since 4 July 2008, available in the IDRL database of the International Federation of Red Crescent and Red Cross Societies at http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/idrl/publication. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  11. 11.

    Convention on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, done at Vienna on 26 September 1986, entered into force on 26 February 1987, available at http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Conventions/cacnare.html. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  12. 12.

    Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents, done at Helsinki on 17 March 1992, entered into force on 19 April 2000, available at http://www.unece.org/env/teia/about.html. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  13. 13.

    Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunication Resources for Disaster Mitigation and Relief Operations, done at Tampere on 18 June 1998, entered into force on 8 January 2005, available at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/emergencytelecoms/tampere.html. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  14. 14.

    Framework Convention on Civil Defence Assistance, done at Geneva on 22 May 2000, entered into force on 23 September 2001, available at http://www.icdo.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=23&Itemid=26&lang=en

    . Accessed 26 January 2012.

  15. 15.

    Law no. 24 of 2007 Concerning Disaster Management, available in the IDRL database of the International Federation of Red Crescent and Red Cross Societies at http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/idrl/publication. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  16. 16.

    They are the following: Government Regulation no. 8 of 2008 Concerning the National Disaster Management Agency; Government Regulation no. 21 of 2008 Concerning Disaster Management Operations; Government Regulation no. 22 of 2008 Concerning Funding and Management of Disaster Assistance; Government Regulation no. 23 of 2008 Concerning Participation of International Institutions and Foreign Non-Governmental Organizations in Disaster Management. They are all available at http://drrindonesia.org/index.php?option=com_weblinks&view=category&id=43&Itemid=58. Accessed 26 January 2012.

  17. 17.

    See: IFRC 2010, 5; Walker et al. 2011, 16 et seq.

  18. 18.

    IFRC 2010, 4.

  19. 19.

    Ibid.

  20. 20.

    UNDP 2009, 21. As for the Regional Disaster Management Agencies, see Walker et al. 2011, 17.

  21. 21.

    See supra footnote 16.

  22. 22.

    The Guideline on the Role of the International Organizations and Foreign Non-Governmental Organizations during Emergency Response is available in the IDRL database of the International Federation of Red Crescent and Red Cross Societies at http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/idrl/publication. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  23. 23.

    See supra footnote 16.

  24. 24.

    Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107-296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135 (6 U.S.C. 101 et seq.).

  25. 25.

    Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub. L. 93-288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143 (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.).

  26. 26.

    Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109-295, Title VI, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1394.

  27. 27.

    See US Government Accountability Office 2008.

  28. 28.

    FEMA, Department of State, USAID, International Assistance System Concept of Operations, October 1, 2010, available at https://www.llis.dhs.gov/docdetails/details.do?contentID=47760, 9. Accessed 27 January 2012. It supplements the International Coordination Support Annex to the National Response Framework of January 2008, available at http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nrf/. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  29. 29.

    Ibid., 12.

  30. 30.

    Ibid., 7.

  31. 31.

    Ibid., 3.

  32. 32.

    Ibid., 10. See also the International Coordination Support Annex to the National Response Framework, op. cit. n. 28, 5.

  33. 33.

    FEMA, Department of State, USAID, International Assistance System Concept of Operations, op. cit. n. 28, 14.

  34. 34.

    Ibid., 13. See also the International Coordination Support Annex to the National Response Framework, op. cit. n. 28, 5.

  35. 35.

    Hagerty and Ramseur 2010, 45 et seq.

  36. 36.

    See: Hagerty and Ramseur 2010, 1; Griggs 2011, 57 et seq.

  37. 37.

    Hagerty and Ramseur 2010, 45 et seq.

  38. 38.

    Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-380, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 484 (33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.).

  39. 39.

    Federal Water Pollution Control Act, June 30, 1948, ch. 758, as added Oct. 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92-500, Sec. 2, 86 Stat. 816 (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.).

  40. 40.

    Ex. Ord. No. 12777, Oct. 18, 1991, 56 F.R. 54757, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, para. 34, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625.

  41. 41.

    Hagerty and Ramseur 2010, 45.

  42. 42.

    See: US Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: International Offers of Assistance, Media Note, June 14, 2010, PRN: 2010/794, available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/06/143127.htm, accessed 27 January 2012; US Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: International Offers of Assistance, Taken Question, June 14, 2010, PRN: 2010/793, available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/06/143125.htm, accessed 27 January 2012; US Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: International Offers of Assistance, Media Note, June 29, 2010, PRN: 2010/875, available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/06/143771.htm, accessed 27 January 2012.

  43. 43.

    Republic Act no. 10121, An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes, May 27, 2010, available at http://ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45:republic-act-no-10121&catid=17:ndrrmc-issuances&Itemid=19

    . Accessed 27 January 2012.

  44. 44.

    Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act no. 10121, also known as “An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes”, September 27, 2010, available at http://ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95:implementing-rules-and-regulation-of-republicact-no-10121&catid=17:ndrrmc-issuances&Itemid=19. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  45. 45.

    See IFRC 2010, 9 et seq.

  46. 46.

    The Philippine DRRM Act also establishes Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils, Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils and Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Offices.

  47. 47.

    National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework, June 16, 2011, available at http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=227:ndrrmc-framework&catid=24:disaster-risk-reduction-and-management-laws&Itemid=39. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  48. 48.

    See also Rule 14, Section 3, of the Implementing Rules and Regulations.

  49. 49.

    NDRRMC Update, SitRep no. 40 re Effects of Tropical Storm “Sendong” (Washi) and Status of Emergency Response Operations, 16 January 2012, available at http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=358preparedness-and-response-to-the-effects-of-tropical-storm-sendong&catid=1:ndrrmc-update, 1

    . Accessed 27 January 2012.

  50. 50.

    President of the Philippines, Proclamation no. 303 Declaring a State of National Calamity, December 20, 2011, available at http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?limitstart=10. Accessed 27 January 2012.

  51. 51.

    NDRRMC Update, SitRep no. 40, op. cit. n. 49, 2.

  52. 52.

    NDRRMC Memorandum no. 13, Tropical Storm “Sendong” (Washi) ONE STOP SHOP (OSS) Facility for the Acceptance and Processing of Foreign Donations, December 23, 2011, available at http://www.ndrrmc.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=394:ndrrmc-memo-order-&catid=21:one-stop-shop&Itemid=37. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  53. 53.

    Loi portant amendment de la loi sur l’état d’urgence du 9 septembre 2008, 15 avril 2010, available at http://www.parlementhaitien.ht/crbst_35.html. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  54. 54.

    Loi sur l’état d’urgence, 9 septembre 2008, available at http://www.parlementhaitien.ht/crbst_35.html. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  55. 55.

    See: Margesson and Taft-Morales 2010; Froberg 2010.

  56. 56.

    See: OECD 2009, 201; Cabinet Office, Government of Japan 2011a, 6 et seq.

  57. 57.

    Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act, Act no. 223, November 15, 1961, available at http://www.adrc.asia/nationinformation.php?NationCode=392&Lang=en&NationNum=23. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  58. 58.

    Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, Act no. 156 of December 17, 1999, available at http://www.nisa.meti.go.jp/english/resources/legislativeframework/index.html. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  59. 59.

    See: Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2011b, 1 et seq., 11 et seq.; IAEA 2011, 11 et seq.; Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, Government of Japan 2011a, 4 et seq.

  60. 60.

    See: Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 2011b, 3, 13; Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, Government of Japan 2011a, 18.

  61. 61.

    Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, Government of Japan 2011a, 1.

  62. 62.

    See: Disaster Law to Boost State’s Role, Kyodo, August 14, 2011, in The Japan Times Online, available at http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/nn20110814a4.html; IAEA 2011, 117. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  63. 63.

    See the list of the States and international organizations that offered assistance on the web site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan at http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/visit/incidents/index2.html#assistance. Accessed 29 January 2012.

  64. 64.

    Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, Government of Japan 2011a, 38, VIII-3.

  65. 65.

    See the information provided on the web site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan at http://www.mofa.go.jp/j_info/visit/incidents/index2.html#assistance. Accessed 29 January 2012.

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Mancini, M. (2012). The National Legal Frameworks Relating to Disaster Response: How is Incoming International Assistance Regulated?. In: de Guttry, A., Gestri, M., Venturini, G. (eds) International Disaster Response Law. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-6704-882-8_12

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