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Sports/Media Complex in the New Media Landscape

Part of the ASSER International Sports Law Series book series (ASSER)

Abstract

The professional sports industry is a complex micro economy consisting of a set of interdependent markets and actors. In other words, professional sports teams and organisations, the media and sponsorship constitutes a trinity from which each of the parties is able to drive substantial profit (Smart 2008, 7). In the past, the roles of the different stakeholders of the sports/media complex were clearly defined. However, the development and spread of new media and communication technologies have now changed the sports/media complex. Sports clubs tried to become media companies themselves by offering club channels, mobile content and websites to their fans. When discovering the opportunities of new media, sports clubs bypassed traditional media and reached out directly to their fans. Furthermore, the role of the fans/public in the sports/media complex has also been altered. In the past, they passively submitted themselves to linear broadcasts of sports events. Currently, the public, when having access to the Internet and digital cameras, become potential producers of sports content.

Keywords

  • Sport Club
  • Sport Organisation
  • Sport Event
  • Football Club
  • Commercial Organisation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Fig. 2.1
Fig. 2.2
Fig. 2.3
Fig. 2.4

Notes

  1. 1.

    Bolotny and Bourg 2006, 112.

  2. 2.

    Grant and Graeme 2008, 593.

  3. 3.

    Jhally 1989, 77.

  4. 4.

    Rowe 1999, 4.

  5. 5.

    Maguire 1991, 316.

  6. 6.

    Silk 2004, 233.

  7. 7.

    Slack and Amis 2004 , 270.

  8. 8.

    Forrest et al. 2010, 112–135.

  9. 9.

    Buraimo 2006, 108.

  10. 10.

    PriceWaterHouseCoopers 2008, 168.

  11. 11.

    European Commission 1998, 12; Stead 1986, 189; Hargreaves 1986, 120.

  12. 12.

    Kestens 2005, 21.

  13. 13.

    Stead 1986, 190.

  14. 14.

    The New York Times 1990.

  15. 15.

    BBC Sport 2006.

  16. 16.

    Boyle and Haynes Boyle and Haynes 2000, 70.

  17. 17.

    Vanderkelen 1997, 82.

  18. 18.

    Commission decision, 23 July 2003, para 74; Rosner and Shropshire 2004, 139; Hoehn and Lancefield 2003, 554.

  19. 19.

    Sportbusiness International 2010a.

  20. 20.

    Commission decision, 2 April 2003, para 61; Commission decision 23 July 2003, para 20.

  21. 21.

    Boyle and Haynes 2004, 54–55.

  22. 22.

    The Independent 1996 .

  23. 23.

    Premiere 2006 .

  24. 24.

    Hatton et al. 2007, 346.

  25. 25.

    Ofcom 2008, para 3.66–3.72; Ofcom 2009, para 3.31.

  26. 26.

    Ofcom 2007, 19 and 28.

  27. 27.

    Financial Times 2009.

  28. 28.

    Lefever and Van Rompuy 2009, 247.

  29. 29.

    Skinner 2010, 104–106.

  30. 30.

    Smith 2008, 173 and 192; X 2009, 15.

  31. 31.

    See e.g.: BBC News 2009a; BBC News 2009b; Guardian 2009; Telegraph 2009.

  32. 32.

    Hargreaves 1986, 118.

  33. 33.

    UEFA 2008.

  34. 34.

    Sportbusiness International 2010b.

  35. 35.

    Slack and Amis 2004 , 270.

  36. 36.

    Commission of the European Communities 2007, SEC(2007) 935, 31.

  37. 37.

    Guardian 2006.

  38. 38.

    Businessweek 2008.

  39. 39.

    PriceWaterHouseCoopers 2008, 168.

  40. 40.

    Commission of the European Communities 2007b, COM (2007) 391 final, 2–3.

  41. 41.

    Whitson 1998, 63; Maguire 1993, 39.

  42. 42.

    Werkers et al. 2008, 43.

  43. 43.

    EICTA 2008.

  44. 44.

    Boyle and Haynes 2003, 96.

  45. 45.

    Harrison and Woods 2007, 52.

  46. 46.

    Commission of the European Communities 1997 , COM(97) 623, 3.

  47. 47.

    See e.g.: European Audiovisual Observatory 1999, 6–7.

  48. 48.

    Commission of the European Communities 2003, COM(2003) 541 final, 5.

  49. 49.

    Commission of the European Communities 2005 , COM(2005) 229 final.

  50. 50.

    Evens et al. 2010.

  51. 51.

    Commission of the European Communities ( 2005). COM(2005) 229 final, 9.

  52. 52.

    Valcke 2004, 20.

  53. 53.

    See e.g.: Ibid. 75; Commission of the European Communities 1997 , ii.

  54. 54.

    For more information on convergence, see: Commission of the European Communities 1997 , COM(97) 623.

  55. 55.

    Reding 2006b, SPEECH/06/157, 2.

  56. 56.

    IBM 2006, 1; Södergard 2003; Urban 2007, 48.

  57. 57.

    Commission of the European Communities 1997 , 3; Reding 2006a, b SPEECH, 2; Iosifidis 2002, 30.

  58. 58.

    Boyle and Haynes 2003, 148.

  59. 59.

    Feldman 1997, 13.

  60. 60.

    Reding 2006a, SPEECH, 3.

  61. 61.

    Werkers et al. 2008, 44.

  62. 62.

    Time 2006.

  63. 63.

    ICRI et al. 2009a, 12.

  64. 64.

    Valcke and Lenaerts 2010, 129.

  65. 65.

    OECD 2007, 4.

  66. 66.

    Ibid. 5 and 35.

  67. 67.

    Ibid., 6.

  68. 68.

    ICRI et. al. 2009b, 9.

  69. 69.

    ICRI et al. 2009a, 14.

  70. 70.

    Larouche 2000, 29.

  71. 71.

    Nikolinakos 2006, 21.

  72. 72.

    Ibid .

  73. 73.

    Jakubowicz 2009, 12 and 19.

  74. 74.

    Rowe 2004, 206.

  75. 75.

    Standing Committee on Environment, Communications and the Arts 2009, 12.

  76. 76.

    ENPA 2005, 2.

  77. 77.

    BBC News 2007a.

  78. 78.

    Santomier and Costabiei 2010, 41.

  79. 79.

    Ibid.; Boyle 2004, 73–82.

  80. 80.

    Eufootball.biz, 2009.

  81. 81.

    Gratton and Solberg 2007, 95 and 97.

  82. 82.

    Silk 2004 , 236.

  83. 83.

    Horne 2006, 49–50.

  84. 84.

    Gerrard 2004, 258.

  85. 85.

    Evens and Lefever 2011, 38.

  86. 86.

    For more information about this decision, see: Monopolies and Mergers Commission 1999; Binmore and Harbord (2000), 142–144; Crowther 2000, 30–35; Cave and Crandall 2001, Hoehn and Lancefield 2003, 564–565.

  87. 87.

    Dobson and Goddard 2001, 84–85.

  88. 88.

    Gerrard 2004, 262–263.

  89. 89.

    Ofcom 2007, 24.

  90. 90.

    Rapid Press Releases 2002 , IP/02/942.

  91. 91.

    Cave and Crandall 2001, 22.

  92. 92.

    Smith 2008, 259–261.

  93. 93.

    See e.g.: The Daily Telegraph 2010; YouTube 2010.

  94. 94.

    Werkers et al. 2008, 43.

  95. 95.

    Mahan and McDaniel 2006 , 429; Rowe 1999, 168.

  96. 96.

    Werkers et al. 2008, 45.

  97. 97.

    See e.g.: BBC News 2007b.

  98. 98.

    United States District Court 2010.

  99. 99.

    Newton 2008.

  100. 100.

    Daily Mail 2011.

  101. 101.

    News.com.au 2011.

  102. 102.

    Santomier and Costabiei 2010, 43.

  103. 103.

    Ibid., 47.

  104. 104.

    Werkers et al. 2008, 44.

  105. 105.

    Lefever and Werkers 2010, 217.

  106. 106.

    For more information about the new media players and their new obligations, see: Lefever and Werkers 2010, 214–219.

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Lefever, K. (2012). Sports/Media Complex in the New Media Landscape. In: New Media and Sport. ASSER International Sports Law Series. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-6704-873-6_2

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