Advertisement

The Commercial Monopoly in Sports Mega-Events

  • Andre M. Louw
Chapter
Part of the ASSER International Sports Law Series book series (ASSER)

Abstract

This chapter will examine the commercial arrangements relating to sports mega-events between sports organisations and their commercial partners, primarily the sponsors who spend hundreds of millions of dollars to associate their products and services with these international spectacles. It will commence with a brief discussion of how the commercial exploitation through sponsorship of these events works, after which I will provide some brief description of the (short) history of the development of the modern mega-vent sponsorship model in the Olympic Games context. The final section of the chapter will examine how sponsorship works, and will then focus on a central concept in the evaluation of the legality of ambush marketing and of the law’s responses to it, namely sponsorship exclusivity to events. The legal implications of such exclusivity will be further examined in Chap. 6.

Keywords

Olympic Game Sport Organisation International Olympic Committee Corporate Sponsor Chief Market Officer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

All internet-based sources referred to, were last visited in or before December 2011.

  1. Andrews D (2004) Sport in the late capitalist movement. In: Slack T (ed) The commercialisation of sport. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Andriychuck O (2009) The legal nature of premium sports events: “IP or not IP—that is the question”. In: Blackshaw I, Cornelius S, Siekmann R (eds) TV rights and sport: legal aspects. T.M.C Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacalao-Fleury, CE (2011) Brazil’s Olympic Trials: An Overview of the Intellectual Property Challenges posed by the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games. Univ Ill J Law Technol Policy 1:191Google Scholar
  4. Barney RK, Wenn SR, Martyn SG (2004) Selling the five rings. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake CityGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker D (2006) The essential legal guide to events. Dynamic Publishing Ltd, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  6. Bikoff JL, Heasley DK, Delaney MT, Marano PV, Konoshima T (2010) From the gridiron to gold medals: enforcing sports trademarks. World Trademark Rev (26):87–91Google Scholar
  7. Bollier D (2005) Brand name bullies: the quest to own and control culture. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyle R, Haynes R (2009) Power play: sport, the media and popular culture. Edinburgh University Press, EdinburghCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton N, Chadwick, S (2009) A typology of ambush marketing: the methods and strategies of ambushing in sport. Centre for the International Business of Sport Working Paper Series No. 10Google Scholar
  10. Cashmore E (2010) Making sense of sports, 5th edn. Taylor and Francis, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  11. Chase CR, Kernit R (2010) Fighting for what is left of exclusivity: strategies to protect the exclusivity of sponsors in the sports industry. J Spons 3(4):379–393Google Scholar
  12. Cobbs J (2011) Legal battles for sponsorship exclusivity: the cases of the World Cup and NASCAR. Sport Manag Rev 14(3):287–296. Elsevier Ltd—in-press at the time of writingGoogle Scholar
  13. Coombe RJ (1991) Objects of property and subjects of politics: intellectual property laws and democratic dialogue. Tex Law Rev 69:1853Google Scholar
  14. Dreyfuss RC (1996) We are symbols and inhabit symbols, so should we be paying rent? Deconstructing the Lanham Act and rights of publicity. Columbia-VLA J Law Arts 20:23Google Scholar
  15. Crompton JL (2004a) Sponsorship ambushing in sport. Manag Leis 9:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crompton JL (2004b) Conceptualizations and alternate operationalizations of the measurement of sponsorship effectiveness in sport. Leis Stud 23(3):267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crow D, Hoek J (2003) Ambush marketing: a critical review and some practical advice. Mark Bull 14:1–14Google Scholar
  18. Curthoys J, Kendall CN (2001) Ambush marketing and the Sydney 2000 games (indicia and images) protection act: a retrospective. Murdoch Univ Elec J Law 8(2). http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v8n2/kendall82.html
  19. Davies G (2009) Managing the alchemy of the 2010 Football World Cup. In: Pillay U, Tomlinson R, Bass O (eds) Development and dreams: the urban legacy of the 2010 Football World Cup. HSRC Press, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis JA (2008) The Olympic games effect: how sports marketing builds strong brands. Wiley, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  21. De Lange P (1998) The games cities play. C P de Lange Inc, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  22. Downward P, Dawson A (2000) The economics of professional team sports. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Farrelly FJ, Quester P (1997) In the name of the game. Asia Aust Mark J 5(1):5–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fortunato JA, Martin SE (2011) American needle v NFL: legal and sponsorship implications. Univ Denver Sports Entertain Law J 9:73Google Scholar
  25. Fortunato JA, Richards J (2007) Reconciling sports sponsorship exclusivity with antitrust law. Tex Rev Entertain Sports Law 8:33Google Scholar
  26. Gannon N (2010) Foul play in sports branding—the marketer’s perspective’ World Trademark Rev 27:67Google Scholar
  27. Gardiner S et al (2006) Sports law, 3rd edn. Cavendish Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Govoni NAP (2004) Dictionary of marketing communications. Sage Publishing, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  29. Gradauskaite J (2010) The advertising appeal of sports and the legal limits of the incorporation of sports in advertising. Entertain Sports Law J. ISSN 1748-944XGoogle Scholar
  30. Graham S, Goldblatt JJ, Delpy L (1995) The ultimate guide to sport event management and marketing. Irwin Professional Publishing, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  31. Gratton C, Taylor P (2000) Economics of sport and recreation. E and FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Grohs R, Wagner U, Vsetecka S (2004) Assessing the effectiveness of sports sponsorships: an empirical examination. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 56:119–138Google Scholar
  33. Gruneau R (1984) The McDonaldization of the Olympics. In: Tomlinson A, Whannel G (eds) Five-ring circus—money, power and politics at the Olympic games. Pluto Press, London, as referred to in Tomlinson A (2005) The making of the global sports economy: ISL, adidas and the rise of the corporate player in world sport. In: Silk ML, Andrews DL, Cole CL (eds) Sport and corporate nationalisms. Berg Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. Hofacre, writing in Burnett J, Menon A, Smart DT (1993) Sports marketing: a new ball game with new rules. J Advert Res 33(5):21–35Google Scholar
  35. Horne J, Manzenreiter W (eds) (2006) Sports mega-events: social scientific analyses of a global phenomenon. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Houlihan B (2004) Sports globalisation, the state and the problem of governance. In: Slack T (ed) The commercialisation of sport. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. James M (2010) Sports law. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  38. Jennings A (1996) The new lords of the rings. Pocket Books, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  39. Jennings A (2006) Foul! the secret world of FIFA: bribes, vote rigging and ticket scandals. Harper Sport, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson P (2007) Ambush marketing: a practical guide to protecting the brand of a sporting event. Sweet and Maxwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson P (2008) Look out! it’s an ambush. Int Sports Law Rev 2/3:24–29 (Sweet & Maxwell Ltd)Google Scholar
  42. Kelbrick R (2008) Ambush marketing and the protection of the trade marks of international sports organizations—a comparative view. CILSA 41(1):24–48Google Scholar
  43. Lewis A, Taylor J (2007) Sport: law and practice. Tottel Publishing, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  44. Louw AM (2009) South Africa. In: International encyclopaedia of sports law. Kluwer Law International, DeventerGoogle Scholar
  45. Magdalinski T, Nauright J (2004) Commercialisation of the modern Olympics. In: Slack T (ed) The commercialisation of sport. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Malfas M, Theodoraki E, Houlihan B (2004) Impacts of the Olympic games as mega-events. Munic Eng 157(ME3):209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Masterman G (2009) Strategic sports event management: Olympic edition. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. McDaniel L, Kinney L (1998) The implications of recency and gender effects in consumer response to ambush marketing. Psychol Mark 15(4):385–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKelvey S, Grady J (2008) Sponsorship program protection strategies for special sport events: are event organizers outmaneuvering ambush marketers? J Sport Manag 22:550–586Google Scholar
  50. Mullin B, Hardy S, Sutton W (2000) Sports marketing, 2nd edn. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  51. Nemeth A (2010) Mega-events, their sustainability and potential impact on spatial development: the European capital of culture. Int J Interdiscip Soc Sci 5(4):265–278Google Scholar
  52. Payne M (2006) Olympic turnaround. Praeger Press, WestportGoogle Scholar
  53. Pomfret R, Wilson JK, Lobmayr B (2009) Bidding for sports mega-events. University of Adelaide school of economics research paper 2009–30, paper presented at the first European conference in sports economics at university Paris 1 (Panthéon Sorbonne), 14–15 Sept 2009Google Scholar
  54. Pound RW (1986) The international Olympic marketing programme. Olymp Rev 220:84–86Google Scholar
  55. Pound RW (2006) Inside the Olympics. Wiley, TorontaGoogle Scholar
  56. Roche M (2000) Mega-events and modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Rose AK, Spiegel MM (2010) The Olympic trade effect. Finance Dev 47(1):12–13Google Scholar
  58. Schaaf D (1995) Sports marketing: it’s not just a game anymore. Prometheus Books, Amherst (as quoted in Mason DS (1999) What is the sports product, and who buys it? Eur J Mark 33(3/4):402–415)Google Scholar
  59. Schaus GP, Wenn SR (eds) (2007) Onward to the Olympics: historical perspectives on the Olympic games. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  60. Schulz-Herzenberg, C (ed) (2010) Player and referee: conflicting interests and the 2010 FIFA world cup™ monograph, vol 169. South African Institute for Security StudiesGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwab F (2006) FIFA’s trademark tactics. World Trademark Rev 3:6Google Scholar
  62. Seguin B, O’Reilly NJ (2008) The Olympic brand, ambush marketing and clutter. Int J Sport Manag Mark 4(1):62Google Scholar
  63. Seguin B, Teed K, O’Reilly N (2005) National sport organizations and sponsorship: an identification of best practices. Int J Sport Manag Mark 1(2):69–92Google Scholar
  64. Slack T, Amis J (2004) Money for nothing and your cheques for free? A critical perspective on sports sponsorship. In: Slack T (ed) The commercialisation of sport. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Sports Directorate of the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (2000) The balance between the game and the moneyGoogle Scholar
  66. Still M, Jordan K, Ryston-Pratt T (2009) TV rights related to major sports events: the example of the Olympic games. In: Blackshaw I, Cornelius S, Siekmann R (eds) TV rights and sport: legal aspects. TMC Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  67. Stuart SA, Scassa T (2011) Legal guarantees for Olympic legacy. Entertain Sports Law J 9(1). http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/eslj/issues/volume9/number1/stuart/
  68. Sutton WA, McDonald MA, Milne GR, Cimperman J (1997) Creating and fostering fan identification in professional sports. Sports Mark Q 6:1Google Scholar
  69. Tomlinson A (2005) The making of the global sports economy: ISL, Adidas and the rise of the corporate player in world sport. In: Silk ML, Andrews DL, Cole CL (eds) Sport and corporate nationalisms. Berg Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  70. Toohey K, Veal AJ (2007) The Olympic games: a social science perspective, 2nd edn. CAB International, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tripodi JA, Sutherland M (2000) Ambush marketing—an Olympic event. J Brand Manag 7(6):412–422Google Scholar
  72. Vaidhyanathan S (2003) Copyrights and copywrongs: the rise of intellectual property and how it threatens creativity. New York University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Vassallo E, Blemaster K, Werner P (2005) An international look at ambush marketing. Trademark Report 95:1338Google Scholar
  74. Walters G (2004) The professional footballers’ association: a case study of trade union growth. Football Governance Research Centre, University of London, BirkbeckGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. ASSER PRESS, The Hague, The Netherlands, and the author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Law, Howard College CampusUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations