Discrimination, Chronic Stress, and Mortality Among Black Americans: A Life Course Framework

  • James S. Jackson
  • Darrell Hudson
  • Kiarri Kershaw
  • Briana Mezuk
  • Jane Rafferty
  • Katherine Knight Tuttle
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 2)


We use a life course framework to analyze lifetime patterns of mortality among black Americans. Using this framework directs attention to specific questions regarding the potential causes of racial group differentials in mortality, and we hope moves the field toward more comprehensive and testable explanations. The work on aging, the life course, and health has long highlighted the racial crossover effect in late-life mortality (e.g., Johnson 2000). While there are heated debates about the causes of this racial crossover in the United States (e.g., Johnson 2000; Preston et al. 1996), demographers have noted its existence in both cross-sectional population-level data, and in longitudinal panel studies (Johnson 2000). Gibson (Gibson 1991, 1994; Gibson and Jackson 1987) speculated that the racial crossover is based upon a series of mortality sweeps beginning in the black population in midlife, thereby leaving a hardier group of blacks in very older ages whose probability of survival in comparison to whites’ reverses and becomes more favorable.


Infant Mortality Residential Segregation Allostatic Load Social Security Administration Intrauterine Environment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • James S. Jackson
    • 1
  • Darrell Hudson
    • 2
  • Kiarri Kershaw
    • 3
  • Briana Mezuk
    • 4
  • Jane Rafferty
    • 5
  • Katherine Knight Tuttle
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute for Social Research, and Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Kellogg Health Scholar at the Center on Social Disparities in Health, Department of Family and Community MedicineCenter on Social Disparities in Health, University of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Social Research, University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  5. 5.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  6. 6.CincinnatiUSA

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