Advertisement

Destruction and Replanting of the Urban Forest of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Igor LaćanEmail author
  • Joe R. McBride
Chapter

Abstract

Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, experienced severe damage during the 1991–1995 Yugoslav wars. During the 47-month-long Siege of Sarajevo from April 1992 to March 1996, the energy supplies to the city were cut off, and the besieged residents gradually cut down over three-quarters of all urban trees within the siege lines for use as firewood. In addition, some urban green spaces were converted into cemeteries, further reducing the number of urban trees. After the war, the city trees have gradually been replanted using primarily imported tree stock, as most of the local tree nurseries had been destroyed during the siege. This chapter presents the observations and measurements of trees which survived the war, as well as of the trees that have been planted after the war, made in Sarajevo in 2008, 13 years after the siege. We summarize the lessons learned from the Sarajevo experience, regarding both the patterns of damage and the effective strategies for replanting, which include the close relationship between the urban tree damage and the specifics of military operations, the importance of the initial planting stock, and the advantages of collaboration between academic researchers and urban forest managers in a large-scale replanting program.

Keywords

Former Yugoslavia Municipal arboriculture Siege 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study would not have been possible without the help of our colleagues in Sarajevo. Dean F. Mekić and professors M. Avdibegović, V. Beus (emeritus), and S. Vojniković of the Forestry Faculty at the University of Sarajevo provided extensive help with the study. Municipal Company Park-Sarajevo former Director O. Delić and Technical Director S. Hećo provided critical details on the urban forest destruction and replanting, and demonstrated some replanting efforts in the field. J. Bašić of the Municipal Company Sarajevo-Forests provided detailed information on the condition of peri-urban forests. D. Arnaut of the Cabinet of the Presidency – BiH provided invaluable help with developing our contacts in Sarajevo. We sincerely thank them all.

References

  1. Association des Architectes DAS-SABIH. (1994). Urbicide – Sarajevo  =  Sarajevo, Une Ville Blessée. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou (in English and French).Google Scholar
  2. BBC. (2008). On this day – 29 February 1996: Siege of Sarajevo is lifted. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/29/newsid_4667000/4667292.stm
  3. Bejtić, A. (1973). Ulice i trgovi Sarajeva: Topografija, geneza i toponimija (Streets and Squares of Sarajevo: Topography, Genesys, and Toponymy). Sarajevo: Muzej Grada (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  4. Bertram, C. (1997). Ottoman Sarajevo: The urban history of Sarajevo in the Ottoman period and into the period of the dual monarchy. Retrieved July 30, 2008, from http://www.friends-partners.org/bosnia/cb1.html
  5. Beus, V. (2009a). Stare aleje Sarajeva (Old allées of Sarajevo). Fondeko Svijet, 28, 32–33 (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  6. Beus, V. (2009b). Nove aleje Sarajeva (New allées of Sarajevo). Fondeko Svijet, 29, 50–51 (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  7. Bures, F. (2001). Turning gold into green. American Forests, 107(1), 44–48.Google Scholar
  8. Cheng, S., & McBride, J. R. (2006). Restoration of the urban forests of Tokyo and Hiroshima following World War II. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 5, 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, R. (1998). Hearts grown brutal: Sagas of Sarajevo. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  10. Dautbašić, M., Treštić, T., & Višnjić, Č. (2008). Program sanacije oštećenih stabala u ‘Vilsonovom Šetalištu’ (Restoration of damaged trees along ‘Wilson’s Promenade’). Sarajevo: University of Sarajevo (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  11. Dear, I. C. B. (1995). The Oxford guide to World War II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Donia, R. J. (2006). Sarajevo: A biography. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  13. Filipović, Z. (1994). Zlata’s diary: A child’s life in Sarajevo. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  14. Helphand, K. I. (2006). Defiant gardens: Making gardens in wintertime. San Antonio: Trinity University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Janjić, N. (2002). Šesti prilog poznavanju nesamonikle dendroflore Sarajeva i okoline. Sixth contribution to the knowledge of the cultivated woody plants of Sarajevo and surroundings. Works of the Faculty of Forestry University of Sarajevo 32(1), 53–97 (in Bosnian, with English summary).Google Scholar
  16. King, C. S. (2003). The siege of Sarajevo, 1992–1995. In W. G. Robertson (Ed.), Block by block: The challenges of urban operations (pp. 235–290). Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Press.Google Scholar
  17. KJKP Park-Sarajevo. (1996). Štete na urbanom zelenilu Sarajeva (Evaluation of the war damage to urban greenery of Sarajevo). Sarajevo: Kanton Sarajevo (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  18. Kurspahić, K. (2008). Trees for Sarajevo after the war. REC News – The Bulletin 8/1. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from http://greenhorizon.rec.org/bulletin/Bull81/Sarajevo.html
  19. Machlis, G. E., & Hanson, T. (2008). Warfare ecology. BioScience, 58(8), 729–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morris, E. S. (1997). British town planning and urban design: Principles and policies. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  21. Munro, R. (1895). Rambles and studies in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia: With an account of the proceedings of the congress of archaeologists and anthropologists held in Sarajevo, August 1894. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood.Google Scholar
  22. Pintarić, K. (1998). Forestry and forest reserves in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Invited report). In J. Diaci (Ed.), Virgin forests and forest reserves in central and East European Countries: History, present status and future development (Proceedings of the COST E4 meeting) (pp. 1–15). Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty.Google Scholar
  23. Prstojević, M.(1994). Sarajevo, the wounded city. Ljubljana: DAG Grafika.Google Scholar
  24. SGS Qualifor. (2006). Forest management certification report 9325-BA. Retrieved November 11, 2008, from http://www.forestry.sgs.com/9325-ba_-_sar-s_gbosansko_ma2006-10_-_ad36a_gm_-_psummary.pdf
  25. Silber, L., & Little, A. (1996). Yugoslavia: Death of a nation. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  26. Šilić, Č. (1983). Atlas Drveća i Grmlja (Tree and shrub atlas). Sarajevo: Svjetlost (in Bosnian).Google Scholar
  27. Starry, D. A. (2003). Foreword. In W. G. Robertson (Ed.), Block by block: The challenges of urban operations (pp. vii–x). Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Press.Google Scholar
  28. Strachan, H. (2003). The First World War: A new illustrated history. London: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Honors ProgramPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science, Policy and ManagementUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, and Department of Environmental Science, Policy and ManagementUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations