Green Zones from Above and Below: A Retrospective and Cautionary Tale

  • Charles GeislerEmail author


This chapter acknowledges the antipodal nature of red and green zones while cautioning against casting green zones as a uniform response to human or ‘natural’ disturbances. Land allotments for gardening and farming are staple green zone behaviors and have deep historical roots. Carefully considered, these roots reveal that green zones originate from above, as social control, as well as from below to protect citizens and subjects against state misadventures, industrial dystopias, land enclosures, and environmental crises. The chapter seeks to show that green zone land policies can be top-down or bottom-up, are historically contingent, and will continue to evolve and hybridize as they have done in the past.


Homesteading Military allotments Resistance Green zones Anarchism 


  1. Appleyard, R. T., & Manford, T. (1979). The beginning: European discovery and early settlement of Swan River Western Australia. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bockstruck, L. D. (1996). Revolutionary war bounty land grants awarded by state governments. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  3. Bockstruck, L. D. (2007). Bounty and donation land grants in British colonial America. Baltimore: Geneological Pub Co.Google Scholar
  4. Booton, H. (1970). Ford: An unconventional biography of the men and their times. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  5. Chase, M. (1988). The people’s farm. English radical agrarianism, 1775–1840. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  6. Chenoweth, R., & Semonis, S. W. (1992). The history of McDonough county, Illinois. Dallas: Curtis Media Corp.Google Scholar
  7. Dickinson, H. T. (Ed.). (1982). The political work of Thomas Spence. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Avero Publications, Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. Ganshof, F. L. (1964). Feudalism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gaskell, P. (1833). The manufacturing population of England. London: Baldwin and Cradock.Google Scholar
  10. Girardet, H. (1976). Land for the people. London: Crescent Books.Google Scholar
  11. Goldsworthy, A. (2003). The complete Roman army. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  12. Goodway, D. (1982). London Chartism 1838–1848. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Goodway, D. (2006). Anarchist seeds beneath the snow: Left libertarian thought and English writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gould, P. (1988). Early green politics: Back to nature, back to the land, and socialism in Britain 1880–1900. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  15. Grandin, G. (2009). Fordlandia: The rise and fall of Henry Ford’s forgotten jungle city. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  16. Hopkins, K. (1978). Conquerors and slaves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Howard, E. (1965). Garden cities of to-morrow. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kennedy, R. G. (2003). Mr. Jefferson’s lost cause. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kropotkin, P. (1888/1912). Fields, factories, and workshops. New York: Harper Torchbooks.Google Scholar
  20. Kropotkin, P. (1907). The conquest of bread. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  21. Leneman, L. (1989). Fit for heroes?: Land settlement in Scotland after World War I. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Marschner, F. J. (1959). Land use and its patterns in the United States (Agricultural handbook, no. 153). Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  23. Mather, A. S. (1978). State-aided land settlement in Scotland. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen Press.Google Scholar
  24. North, D., & Thomas, R. P. (1973). The rise of the western world. London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Orfield, M. N. (1915). Federal land grants to the states: With special reference to Minnesota. Minneapolis: Bulletin of the University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  26. Payne, L. (2000). Uncivil movements: The armed right wing and democracy in Latin American. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Roth, G., & Wittich, C. (1978). Max Weber: Economy and society. An outline of interpretive sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  28. Rudkin, O. D. ([1927]1966). Thomas Spence and his connections. London: Kelly.Google Scholar
  29. Sakolski, A. (1957). Land tenure and land taxation in America. New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Schama, S. (1995). Landscape and memory. New York: A.A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  31. Special feature: The greening of Homeland Security. (2009, October). Homeland Security Today, 16(10), 25–29.Google Scholar
  32. Tilly, C. (1985). War making and state making as organized crime. In P. Evans, D. Reuschemeyer, & T. Skocpol (Eds.), Bringing the state back in (pp. 25–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Turner, F. J. (1920). The frontier in American history. New York: Henry Holt & Co.Google Scholar
  34. Wallerstein, E. (1983). Nationalism and the world transition to socialism: Is there a crisis? Third World Quarterly, 5(1), 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Walton, J. K. (1999). Chartism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Weber, M. (1891). Roman agrarian history (trans: Frank, R.I.). Claremont: Regina Books.Google Scholar
  37. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. Oxford/New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Zahler, H. A. (1941). Eastern workingmen and national land policy, 1829–1862. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Development Sociology, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations