Different Types of Reforestation

  • David Lamb
Part of the World Forests book series (WFSE, volume 8)


Previous chapters have argued there are a number of potential advantages in ­reforesting degraded lands and that such reforestation has the potential to improve human well-being and help conserve biological diversity. But there are different ways of achieving this. In the recent past most large-scale industrial reforestation schemes have relied on even-aged plantations involving a single species. Many of these species were fast-growing exotics used for pulpwood and the rotation lengths used were often less than 10 years. Such plantations can produce large amounts of a homogenous timber product very efficiently and are ideally suited for industrial enterprises. However, they are as useful in situations where landholders have other objectives. For example, some growers might wish to produce higher value timbers that take longer to grow while others, including many smallholders, might wish to produce goods other than timber. Likewise, some government agencies and NGOs may be more interested in forms of reforestation that protect watersheds or provide habitats for threatened wildlife and have no intention of harvesting timber or NTFPs from their plantings. These quite contrasting objectives mean the standard industrial model should not be seen as the only way in which reforestation can be done. Rather, it is simply one of a variety of silvicultural options that might be used depending upon the land owner’s objectives.


Exotic Species Natural Regeneration Degraded Land Original Species Original Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderies JM, Walker BH, Kinzig AP (2006) Fifteen weddings and a funeral: Case studies and resilience-based management. Ecol Soc 11(1):21, Google Scholar
  2. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2003) Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Carle J, Holmgren P (2003) Definitions related to planted forests. Working Paper 79, FAO, Forestry Department, RomeGoogle Scholar
  4. Colombijn F (1997) The ecological sustainability of frontier societies in eastern Sumatra. In: Boomgaard P, Colombijn F, Henley D (eds) Paper landscapes: Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. KITLV Press, Leiden, pp 309–340Google Scholar
  5. De Jong W, Belcher B, Rohadi D, Mustikasari R, Levang P (2003) The political ecology of forest products in Indonesia: a history of changing adversaries. In: Tuck-Po L, De Jong W, Ken-ichi A (eds) The political ecology of tropical forests in Southeast Asia: Historical perspectives. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto, pp 107–132Google Scholar
  6. Diaz S, Cabido M (2001) Vive la difference: Plant functional diversity mattters to ecosystem processes. Trends Ecol Evol 16:646–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nyström M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, Norberg J (2003) Response diversity, ecosystem change and resilience. Frontiers Ecol 1:488–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker BH, Scheffer M, Elmqvist T, Gunderson L, Holling CS (2004) Regime shifts, resilience and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Ann Rev Ecol Systemat 35:557–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gunderson LH (ed) (2002) Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural ­systems. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Hawkes M (2000) Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in Yen Do and Yen Ninh communes, Thai Nguyen province, northern Vietnam. Thesis, School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, University of Queensland, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  11. Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Harris JA (2009) Novel ecosystems: Implications for conservation and ­restoration. Trends Ecol Evol 24:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Homer-Dixon T (2008) The Upside of Down. The Text Publishing Company, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  13. Knapen H (1997) Epidemics, droughts and other uncertainties in Southeast Borneo during the ­eighteenth and nineteeth century. In: Boomgaard P, Colombijn F, Henley D (eds) Paper landscapes: Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. KITLV Press, Leiden, pp 121–154Google Scholar
  14. Lamb D (2001) Reforestation. In: Levin SA (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamb D, Erskine P, Parrotta J (2005) Restoration of degraded tropical forest landscapes. Science 310:1628–1632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lamb D, Gilmour DG (2003) Rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forests. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and World Wide Fund for Nature, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. McElwee P (2009) Regforesting ‘bare hills’ in Vietnam: social and environmental consequences of the 5 million hectare reforestation program. Ambio 38:325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Michon G (2005) Domesticating forests: How farmers manage forest resources. Institut de Recherchepour le Developpement, Center for International Forestry Research, World Agroforestry Center, Paris, BogorGoogle Scholar
  19. Oosthoek S (2008) Nature 2.0. New Scientist 199:32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pasicolan PN, Macandog DM (2007) Gmelina boom, farmers’ doom: Tree growers’ risks, coping strategies and options. In: Harrison SR, Bosch A, Herbohn J (eds) Improving the triple botton line from small-scale forestry: Proceedings of IUFRO 308 Conference. Ormoc City, Leyte, the Philippines, University of Queensland, Brisbane, pp 313–318Google Scholar
  21. Potter LM (1997) A forest product out of control: Gutta percha in Indonesia and the wider Malay world, 1845–1915. In: Boomgaard P, Colombijn F, Henley D (eds) Paper landscapes: Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. KITLV Press, Leiden, pp 281–308Google Scholar
  22. Raintree J, Le TP, Nguyen VD (2002) Marketing research for conservation and development: Case studies from Vietnam. Forest Science Institute of Vietnam, HanoiGoogle Scholar
  23. Rambo AT, Le TC (1996) Rural development issues in the upland agro ecosystems of Vinh Phu Province. In: Le TC, Rambo AT, Fahrney K, Tran DV, Romm J, Dan TS (eds) Red books, green hills: The impact of economic reform on restoration ecology in the Midlands of North Vietnam. Center for Natural resources and Environmental Studies, Hanoi University; East-West Center, Program on Environment; Southeast Asian Universities Agroforestry Network, University of California Hanoi, pp 117–127Google Scholar
  24. Scott JC (1998) Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. Yale University Press, New Haven and LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Society for Ecological restoration International (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration International, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  26. Soule ME, Terborgh J (1999) The policy and science of regional conservation. In: Soule ME, Terborgh J (eds) Continental conservation: Scientific foundations of regional reserve networks. Island Press, Washington, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  27. Totman C (1989) The green archiplelago: Forestry in pre-industrial Japan. University of California Press, Berkley, CAGoogle Scholar
  28. Walker B, Kinzing A, Langridge J (1999) Plant attribute diversity, resilience and ecosystem function; the nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2:95–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Walker B, Salt D (2006) Resilience thinking: Sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Walker BH, Anderies JM, Kinzig AP, Ryan P (2006) Exploring resilience in social-ecological systems: Comparative studies and theory development. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Mined Land RehabilitationUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations