Improvements in Geomagnetic Observatory Data Quality

  • Jan Reda
  • Danielle Fouassier
  • Anca Isac
  • Hans-Joachim Linthe
  • Jürgen Matzka
  • Christopher William Turbitt
Chapter
Part of the IAGA Special Sopron Book Series book series (IAGA, volume 5)

Abstract

Geomagnetic observatory practice and instrumentation has evolved significantly over the past 150 years. Evolution continues to be driven by advances in technology and by the need of the data user community for higher-resolution, lower noise data in near-real time. Additionally, collaboration between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a high-quality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET issues.

Keywords

Secular Variation Absolute Measurement Definitive Data Fluxgate Magnetometer Geomagnetic Observatory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Auster HU, Mandea M, Hemshorn A, Pulz E, Korte M (2007) Automation of absolute measurement of the geomagnetic field. Earth Planets Space 59(9):1007–1014Google Scholar
  2. Baillie, O Clarke E, Flower S, Reay S, Turbitt, C (2009). Reporting quasi-definitive observatory data in real near time. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O0930-1130Google Scholar
  3. Bobrov, YN (1962) Series of quartz magnetic variometers (in Russian). Geomagn Aeronom 2(2):348–356Google Scholar
  4. Brunelli E, Raspopov, OM, Yanovskiy BM (1960) Vysokochuvstvitelnaya varyatsionnaya stantsiya dlya registratsii korotkoperiodnykh kolebaniy magnitnogo polya Zemli. Sb po geofiz priborstr 5Google Scholar
  5. Chambodut A, Mandea M (2005) Evidence for geomagnetic jerks in comprehensive models. Earth Planets Space 57(2):139–149Google Scholar
  6. Chambodut A, Schott, J-J (2009) Geomagnetic Observatory Practice, Instrumentation and Network. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 508-FRI-O1330-0632Google Scholar
  7. Chulliat A, Peltier A, Truong F, Fouassier, D (2009) Proposal for a new observatory data product Quasi-definitive data. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O0945-1255Google Scholar
  8. Chulliat A, Savary J, Telali K, Lalanne, X (2009) Acquisition of 1-second data in IPGP magnetic observatories. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of XIII IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 54–59Google Scholar
  9. Csontos A, Hegymegi L, Heilig B (2007) Temperature tests on modern magnetometers. In: Reda J (ed) Proceedings of the XIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Belsk. Publs Inst Geophys Pol Acad Sc C-99(398):171–177Google Scholar
  10. Curto JJ, Marsal S, Torta JM, Sanclement E (2009) Removing spikes from magnetic disturbances caused by trains at Ebro Observatory. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of XIII IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 60–66Google Scholar
  11. Dawson E, Reay S, Macmillan S, Flower S, Shanahan, T (2009) Quality control procedures at the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism (Edinburgh). Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-P1700-1167Google Scholar
  12. Finn CA, Berarducci AM (2009) USGS magnetic observatory operations: status and planned improvements. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O0900-0653Google Scholar
  13. Fox Maule C, Thejll P, Neska A, Matzka J, Pedersen LW, Nilsson A (2009a) Analyzing and correcting for contaminating magnetic fields at the Brorfelde geomagnetic observatory due to high voltage DC power lines. Earth Planet Space 61(11):1233–1241Google Scholar
  14. Fox Maule C, Matzka J, Pedersen LW (2009b) Correcting geomagnetic observations from Brorfelde, Denmark for disturbances caused by nearby power lines. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O1330-0108Google Scholar
  15. Hegymegi L, Heilig B, Csontos A (2004) New suspended dIdD magnetometer for observa-tory (and field?) use. Proceedings of the XIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Kakioka and Tsukuba, Japan, pp 28–33Google Scholar
  16. Isac A, Mandea M, Linthe H-J (2009) Surlari Observatory: where we have been and where we are. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O0915-0906Google Scholar
  17. Jankowski J, Marianiuk J, Ruta A, Sucksdorff C, Kivinen M (1984) Long-term stability of a torque balance variometer with photoelectric converters in observatory practice. Geophys Surv 6:367–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jankowski J, Sucksdorff C (1996) Guide for Magnetic Measurements and Observatory Practice, IAGA, Warsaw, 235 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Korepanov V, Marusenkov A, Rasson J (2009). 1-second INTERMAGNET standard magnetometer—1-year operation. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-O1145-0155Google Scholar
  20. Korte M, Mandea M, Olsen N (2007) Worldwide observatory hourly means from 1995 to 2003: Investigation of their quality. In: Reda J (ed) XII IAGA workshop on geomagnetic observatory instruments, data acquisition and processing. Publs Inst Geophys Pol Acad Sc C-99(398):275–283Google Scholar
  21. Linthe H-J (2004) MAGDALOG-Data Logger for Magnetic Observatories. Proceedings of the XIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Kakioka and Tsukuba, Japan, pp 90–94Google Scholar
  22. Love JJ (2006) Examination of INTERMAGNET Observatory Noise, Minutes of the OPSCOM/EXCOM INTERMAGNET MEETING, Warsaw 2006, unpublished.Google Scholar
  23. Lowes FJ (2009) DC railways and the magnetic fields they produce—the geomagnetic context. Earth Planet Space 61(8):i–xvGoogle Scholar
  24. Macmillan S, Thomson A (2003) An examination of observatory biases during Magsat and Orsted missions. Phys Earth Planet Int 135:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mandea M, Langlais B (2002) Observatory crustal magnetic biases during Magsat and Orsted satellite missions. Geophys Res Lett 29. doi:10.1029/2001GL013693Google Scholar
  26. Mandea M, Isac A (2011) Geomagnetic Fields, Measurement Techniques. In: Harsh K. Gupta (ed) Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Springer. doi 10.1007/978-90-481-8702-7Google Scholar
  27. Martini D, Mursula K (2006) Correcting the geomagnetic IHV index of the Eskdalemuir Observatory. Ann Geophys 24:3411–3419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matzka J, Pedersen LW, Fox Maule C, Neska A, Reda J, Nilsson A, Linthe H-J (2009) The effect of high-voltage DC power lines on the geomagnetic measurements at BFE. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of XIII IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 162–170Google Scholar
  29. Maus S, Macmillan S, Chernova T, Choi S, Dater D, Golovkov V, Lesur V, Lowes F, Luhr H, Mai W, McLean S, Olsen N, Rother M, Sabaka T, Thomson A, Zvereva T (2005) The 10th generation international geomagnetic reference field. Phys Earth Planetary Inter 151:320–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McLean S, Macmillan S, Maus S, Lesur V, Thomson A, Dater D (2004) The US/UK World Magnetic Model for 2005–2010, NOAA Technical Report NESDIS/NGDC-1Google Scholar
  31. Mohr PJ, Taylor BN, Newell DB (2008) CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2006. Rev Mod Phys 80(2):633–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nowozynski K, Reda J (2007) Comparison of observatory data in quasi-real time. In: Reda J (ed) XII IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Belsk, Poland. Publs Inst Geophys Pol Acad Sc C-99(398):123–127Google Scholar
  33. Pirjola R, Newitt L, Boteler D, Trichtchenko L, Fernberg P, McKee L, Danskin D, Jansen van Beek G (2007) Modelling the disturbance caused by a dc-electrified railway to geomagnetic measurements. Earth Planets Space 59(8):943–949Google Scholar
  34. Pulz E, Jäckel K-H, Bronkalla O (2009) A quasi absolute optically pumped magnetometer for the permanent recording of the Earth’s magnetic field vector. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Boulder and Golden, Colorado, USA. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 216–219Google Scholar
  35. Rasmussen O (1991). The proton gyromagnetic ratio. IAGA News, No 30, p 78Google Scholar
  36. Rasson J (2009) Testing the time-stamp accuracy of a digital variometer and its data logger. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Boulder and Golden, CO. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 225–231Google Scholar
  37. Rasson J, Ameen A, Ashfaque M, Borodin P, Brenes JL, Daudi E, Efendi N, Flower S, Hidayat M, Husni M, Kampine M, Kusonski O, Langa A, Monge I, Mucussete A, Ghulam, MG, Nhatsave A, Santika IKO, Riddick J, Suharyadi D, Turbitt C, Yusuf M (2009a) INDIGO: Better Geomagnetic Observatories where we need them. Presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, Hungary, 502-MON-P1700-0162Google Scholar
  38. Rasson J, van Loo S, Berrami N (2009b) Automatic DIflux measurements with AUTODIF. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Boulder and Golden, Colorado, USA. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009–1226, 220–224Google Scholar
  39. Reay SJ, Allen W, Baillie O, Bowe J, Clarke E, Lesur V, Macmillan S (2005) Space weather effects on drilling accuracy in the North Sea. Ann Geophys 23:3081–3088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reay S, Nose M, Sobhana A, Sergeyeva N, Kharin E, McLean S, Herzog DC (2010) Data and Metadata: Types and Availability. IAGA Special Sopron Book Series—Geomagnetic Observations and Models ( chapter 7)
  41. Rishbeth H (ed) (1996) Guide to the World Data Center System. General Principles World Data Centers Data Services. Issued by the Secretariat of the ICSU Panel on World Data CentresGoogle Scholar
  42. Schulz G, Gentz I (1998) Results of the momentary value comparison between European observatories—A summary of the last two decades. VIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, Niemegk. Scientific Technical Report STR98/21. In: Best A, Linthe H-J (ed), pp 366–374Google Scholar
  43. Shanahan TJG, Turbitt CW (2009) Evaluating the noise for a commonly used fluxgate magnetometer—for 1-second data. In: Love JJ (ed) Proceedings of XIII IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2009-1226, 239–245Google Scholar
  44. St-Louis BJ (ed) (2008) INTERMAGNET Technical Reference Manual, Version 4.4, Available at http://www.intermagnet.org
  45. Tokumoto T, Tsunomura S (1984) Calculation of Magnetic Field Disturbance Produced by Electric Railway. Mem Kakioka Magnetic Observ 20(2):33–44Google Scholar
  46. Wienert KA (1970) Notes on geomagnetic observatory and survey practice. Published in 1970 by UNESCO, Paris, 217 pp, Series: Earth sciencesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Reda
    • 1
  • Danielle Fouassier
    • 2
  • Anca Isac
    • 3
  • Hans-Joachim Linthe
    • 4
  • Jürgen Matzka
    • 5
  • Christopher William Turbitt
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of GeophysicsPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Observatoire MagnétiqueChambon la FôretFrance
  3. 3.Surlari National Geomagnetic ObservatoryMoara Vlasiei IlfovRomania
  4. 4.Helmholtz Centre, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, PotsdamAdolf-Schmidt-Observatorium NiemegkNiemegkGermany
  5. 5.DTU Space, National Space InstituteTechnical University of DenmarkKobenhavnDenmark
  6. 6.British Geological SurveyEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations