Cause and Consequences

  • Robert B. Smith


Probing the causes of effects, the contextual analyses of the previous four chapters exemplified Coleman’s (1964, 116, 189–240) emphasis on quantifying the implied causal effects of several predetermining variables on a response. Probing the effects of a cause (Holland 1986, 945; Morgan and Winship 2007, 280–282), these chapters on evaluative research exemplify Rubin’s (1974) emphasis on studying the effects of a manipulated cause—here, some consequences of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on measures of achievement. Because these chapters study repeated measures on the same schools, they are similar to studies that analyze panel data. But, because of the students’ mobility out of and into these schools, and other changes in the compositions of the schools, these chapters are best viewed as analyzing repeated quasi-panel data.


Propensity Score Student Achievement Comparison School Reform Model Average Causal Effect 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Structural Research Inc.CambridgeUSA

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