Advertisement

Field Studies of Whole-Tree Leaf and Root Distribution and Water Relations in Several European Forests

  • Jan Cermak
  • Nadezhda Nadezhdina
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 212)

Abstract

Practically oriented field studies of different structures important for environmental purposes are dealing with wide levels of biological organization, starting e.g. with micro- structure (cells, molecules) and continuing to macro-structures up to regional, continental or even global levels. Naturally, only very extensive research teams can cover the whole range of these problems. Situation is a bit simplified, when limiting too complex physiological studies only to selected ones. We described here some phenomena related to water relations and corresponding structures, starting from individual organs (roots or branches), through whole trees and stands and when using appropriate models up to landscapes. Measurements of leaf and root area distributions help to evaluate other eco-physiological processes and also to up scale the data (e.g., allowing connections with remote sensing, serve for calibration etc.). Sap flow measurement provides a tool suitable for short- as well as long-term studies. Whole tree water storage helps trees to overcome critical periods of time in summer and specify periods when actually trees grow. Combination of anatomical analysis with sap flow measurement serves for evaluation of the efficiency of the water conducting system. Analysis of hydraulic tree architecture including water redistribution can explain tree survival under drought. Application of biometric parameters helps to up-scale the sap flow data from trees to entire stands. Combination of maps and remote sensing data enable to work up to the landscape level. Present long-term experience shows, that the approach based on field-applicable mobile instrumentation, is possible to adapt for solving different practical problems e.g., such considering tree or stands survival, stem growth, water balance and others.

Keywords

Leaf Area Index Floodplain Forest Stand Transpiration Vertical Root Distribution Soil Water Supply 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work on this chapter was done within the framework of the Research Invention of Czech MSM No.6215648902 and project NAZV QC 60063.

References

  1. Aubrecht L, Stanek Z, Koller J (2006) Electric measurement of the absorbing surfaces in whole tree roots by the earth impedance method – I. Theory. Tree Physiol 26:1105–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buček A, Vlčková V (2009) Scenario of vegetation zone changes in the Czech Republic: ten years after. Nature Prot (Ochrana přírody) 64:8–11Google Scholar
  3. Čermák J (1989) Solar equivalent leaf area as the efficient biometric parameter of individual leaves, trees and stands. Tree Physiol 5:269–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Čermák J (1998) Leaf distribution in large trees and stands of the floodplain forests in southern Moravia. Tree Physiol 18:727–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Čermák J, Kučera J (1990) Scaling up transpiration data between trees, stands and watersheds. Silva Carelica 15:101–120Google Scholar
  6. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N (1998) Sapwood as the scaling parameter – defining according to xylem water content or radial pattern of sap flow? Ann Sci For 55:509–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Čermák J, Prax A (2001) Water balance of the floodplain forests in southern Moravia considering rooted and root-free compartments under contrasting water supply and its ecological consequences. Ann Sci For 58:1–12Google Scholar
  8. Čermák J, Deml M, Penka M (1973) A new method of sap flow rate determination in trees. Biol Plant 15:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Čermák J, Úlehla J, Kučera J, Penka M (1982) Sap flow rate and transpiration dynamics in the full-grown oak (Quercus robur L.) in floodplain forest exposed to seasonal floods as related to potential evapotranspiration and tree dimensions. Biol Plant 24:446–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Čermák J, Jeník J, Kučera J, Židek V (1984) Xylem water flow in a crack willow tree (Salix fragilis L.) in relation to diurnal changes of environment. Oecologia 64:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Čermák J, Kučera J, Prax A, Balek J (1986) Transpiration and water regime of the pine stand in the sand-rock region of poor pine forests (in Czech). In: Proc. Symp. VSZ v Brne “Funkce lesù v životním prostredi” (pp 67–73), BrnoGoogle Scholar
  12. Čermák J, Kučera J, Štepánková M (1991) Water consumption of full-grown oak (Quercus robur L.) in a floodplain forest after the cessation of flooding. In: Penka M, Vyskot M, Klimo E, Vašícek F (eds) Floodplain forest ecosystem II, vol 15B, Development in Agriculture and Management Forest Ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Tokyo, pp 397–417Google Scholar
  13. Čermák J, Matyssek R, Kučera J (1993) Rapid response of large, drought stressed beech trees to irrigation. Tree Physiol 12:281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Čermák J, Riguzzi F, Ceulemns R (1998) Scaling up from the individual trees to the stand level in Scots pine: 1. Needle distribution, overall crown and root geometry. Ann Sci For 55:63–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N, Raschi A, Tognetti R (1998b) Sap flow in Quercus pubescens and Q. cerris stands in Italy. In: Proceedings of the 4th international workshop on measuring sap flow in intact plants. Židlochovice, Czech Republic, IUFRO Publications, Publishing house of Mendel University, Brno, 3–5 Oct 1998, pp 134–141Google Scholar
  16. Čermák J, Hruška J, Martinková M, Prax A (2000) Urban tree root systems and their survival near houses analyzed using ground penetrating radar and sap flow techniques. Plant Soil 219:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N, Jimenez M.S, Morales D, Raschi A, Tognetti R (2001a) Long-term sap flow and biometric studies in laurel and oak forests – Canary Islands and Italy. In: Radoglou K (ed) Proceedings of the international conference on “forest research: a challenge for an integrated European approach”, Thesalonniki, Greece, 27 Aug–1 Sept 2001, Vol II., pp 489–494Google Scholar
  18. Čermák J, Kučera J, Prax A, Bednářová E, Tatarinov F, Nadyezhdin V (2001) Long-term course of transpiration in a floodplain forest in southern Moravia associated with changes of underground water table. Ekologia (Bratisl) 20(suppl 1):92–115Google Scholar
  19. Čermák J, Jimenez MS, Gonzales-Rodriguez AM, Morales D (2002) Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands: efficiency of water conducting system in Laurus azorica trees. Trees 16:538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Čermák J, Kučera J, Nadezhdina N (2004) Sap flow measurements with two thermodynamic methods, flow integration within trees and scaling up from sample trees to entire forest stands. Trees 18:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Čermák J, Ulrich R, Staněk Z, Koller J, Aubrecht L (2006) Electric measurement of the absorbing surfaces in whole tree roots by the earth impedance method – II. Verification based on allometric relationships and root severing experiments. Tree Physiol 26:1113–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Čermák J, Kučera N, Bauerle WL, Phillips J, Hinckley TM (2007) Tree water storage and its diurnal dynamics related to sap flow and changes of trunk volume in old-growth Douglas-fir trees. Tree Physiol 27:181–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cermák J., Ulrich R., Culek I., Cermák M. 2008. Visualization of root systems by the supersonic air stream. In: Neruda J. (ed.): Determination of damage to soil and root system of forest trees by the operation of logging machines. Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Publishing House, Brno 2008, pp 89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Čermák J, Nadezhdina N, Meiresonne L, Ceulemans R (2008a) Scots pine root distribution derived from radial sap flow patterns in stems of large leaning trees. Plant Soil 305:61–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Čermák J, Tognetti R, Nadezhdina N, Raschi A (2008b) Stand structure and foliage distribution in Quercus pubescens and Quercus cerris forests in Tuscany (central Italy). For Ecol Managem 255:1810–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chiesi M, Maselli F, Bindi M, Fibbi L, Bonora L, Raschi A, Čermák J, Nadezhdina N (2001) Calibration and application of forest-BCG in a Mediterraen area by the use of conventional and remote sensing data. Ecol Model 154:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Divos F, Szalai L (2003) Tree evaluation by acoustic tomography. In: Beall FC (ed) Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on nondestructive testing of wood, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 19–21 Aug 2002, pp 251–256Google Scholar
  28. Geyer B, Jarvis P (1991) A review of models of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer schemes (SVATS). A report to the TIGER III Committee, March 1991, Edinburgh, 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Henderson-Sellers A, Mc Guffie K, Pitman AJ (1996) The project of intercomparison of land-surface parametrization schemes (PILPS): 1992–1995. Clim Dyn 12:849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hinckley TM, Lassoie JP, Running SW (1978) Temporal and spatial variations in the water status of forest trees. For Sci Monogr 20:72Google Scholar
  31. Hruška J, Čermák J, Šustek S (1999) Mapping of tree root systems by means of the ground ­penetrating radar. Tree Physiol 19:125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Janssens IA, Sampson DA, Čermák J, Meiresonne L, Riguzzi F, Overloop S, Ceulemans R (1999) Above- and belowground phytomass and carbon storage in a Belgian Scots pine stand. Ann For Sci 56:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jeník J (1957) Root system of pedunculate and sessile oaks. (in Czech). Rozpr Cesk Akad 67:1–88Google Scholar
  34. Krejzar T, Kravka M (1998) Sap flow and vessel distribution in annual rings and petioles of large oaks. Lesnictvi-Forestry 44:193–201Google Scholar
  35. Kučera J, Čermák J, Penka M (1977) Improved thermal method of continual recording the transpiration flow rate dynamics. Biol Plant 19:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kutschera L, Lichtenegger E (2002) Wurzelatlas mitteleuropaischer Waldbäume und Sträucher. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz, p 604Google Scholar
  37. Lindroth A, Čermák J, Kučera J, Cienciala E, Eckersten H (1995) Sap flow by heat balance method applied to small size Salix-trees in a short-rotation forest. Biomass Bioenergy 8:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Matyssek R, Čermák J, Kučera J (1991) Ursacheneingrenzung eines lokalen Buchensterbens mit einer Messmethode der Kronentranspiration. Schweiz Z Forstwes 142:809–828Google Scholar
  39. Meinzer FC, Brooks JR, Domec JC, Gartner BL, Warren JM, Woodruff DR, Bible KD, Shaw DC (2006) Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques. Plant Cell Environ 29:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meiresonne L, Sampson DA, Kowalski AS, Janssens IA, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Van Slycken J, Ceulemans R (2003) Water flux estimates from a Belgian Scots pine stand: a comparison of different approaches. J Hydrol 270:230–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morales D, Gonzalez-Rodriguez AM, Čermák J, Jimenez MS (1996a) Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands: the vertical profiles of leaf characteristics. Phyton 36:1–13Google Scholar
  42. Morales D, Jimenez MS, Gonzalez-Rodriguez AM, Čermák J (1996b) Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands: I. The site stand structure and leaf distribution. Trees 11:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morales D, Jimenez MS, Gonzalez-Rodriguez AM, Čermák J (1996c) Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands: II. Leaf distribution patterns in individual trees. Trees 11:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morales D, Jimenez MS, Gonzalez-Rodriguez AM, Čermák J (2002) Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands: Vessel distribution in stems and in petioles of Laurus azorica trees. Trees 16:529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mualem Y (1986) Hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils: prediction and formulas. In: Kluthe A (ed) Methods of soil analyses. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Agronomy Monographs 9, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 799–823Google Scholar
  46. Nadezhdina,N, Čermák J (2000a) Responses of sap flow in spruce roots to mechanical injury. In: Klimo E, Hager H, Kulhavy J (eds) Spruce monocultures in Central Europe: problems and prospects. EFI Proceedings 33:167–175Google Scholar
  47. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J (2000) Responses of sap flow rate along tree stem and coarse root radii to changes of water supply. Plant Soil 12:1–12Google Scholar
  48. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J (2003) Instrumental methods for studies of structure and function of root systems in large trees. J Exp Bot 54:1511–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Nadezhdin V (1998) Heat field deformation method for sap flow measurements. In: Proceedings of the 4th international workshop on measuring sap flow in intact plants. Židlochovice, Czech Republic, IUFRO Publications, Publishing house of Mendel University, Brno, 3–5 Oct 1998, pp 72–92Google Scholar
  50. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Ceulemans R (2002) Radial pattern of sap flow in woody stems related to positioning of sensors and scaling errors in dominant and understorey species. Tree Physiol 22:907–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Neruda J, Prax A, Ulrich R, Nadezhdin V, Gašpárek J, Pokorný E (2006a) Roots under the load of heavy machinery in spruce trees. Eur J For Res 125:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Gašpárek J, Nadezhdin V, Prax A (2006b) Vertical and horizontal water redistribution within Norway spruce (Picea abies) roots in the Moravian Upland. Tree Physiol 26:1277–1288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nadezhdina N, Nadezhdin V, Ferreira MI, Pitacco A (2007a) Variability with xylem depth in sap flow in trunks and branches of mature olive trees. Tree Physiol 27:105–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Meiresonne L, Ceulemans R (2007b) Transpiration of Scots pine in Flanders growing on soil with irregular substratum. For Ecol Manage 243:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nadezhdina N., Čermák J., Nadezhdin V., Gašpárek J. 2008. Responses of sap flow in roots and tree stems. In: Neruda J. (ed.): Determination of damage to soil and root system of forest trees by the operation of logging machines. Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Publishing House, Brno 2008, pp 106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oltchev A, Čermák J, Nadezhdina N, Tatarinov F, Tischenko A, Ibrom A, Gravenhorst G (2002) Transpiration of a mixed forest stand: field measurements and simulation using SVAT models. Boreal Environ Res 7:389–397Google Scholar
  57. Pallardy SG, Kozlowski TT (1979) Early root and shoot growth of Populus clones. Silvae Genetica 28:153–156Google Scholar
  58. Pietsch S, Hasenauer H, Kučera J, Čermák J (2003) Modeling the effects of hydrological changes on the carbon and nitrogen balance of oak in floodplains. Tree Physiol 23:735–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Phillips NG, Ryan MG, Bond BJ, McDowell NG, Hinckley TM, Čermák J (2003) Reliance on stored water with tree size in three species in the Pacific Northwest. Tree Physiol 23:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Randuška D, Vorel J, Plíva K (1986) Phytocenology and forest typology. State Agricultural Publishers (SZN), Prague, 340 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Raupach MR, Finnigan JJ (1986) Single-layer models of evapotranspiration from plant canopy are incorrect but useful, whereas multi-layer models are correct but useless. Discuss Aust J Plant Physiol 15:705–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rizzo DM, Gross R (2000) Distribution of Armillaria melea on pear root systems and comparison of excavation techniques. In: Stokes A (ed) The supporting roots of trees and woody plants: form, function and physiology, vol 87, Developments in plant and soil sciences. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 305–311Google Scholar
  63. Rogers R, Hinckley TM (1979) Foliar weight and area related to current sapwood area in oak. For Sci 25:298–306Google Scholar
  64. Running SW (1980) Relating plant capacitance to the water relations of Pinus contorta. For Ecol Manage 2:237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Running SW, Coughlan JC (1988) A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. I. Hydrological balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes. Ecol Model 42:1425–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Running SW, Justice CO, Salomonson V, Hall D, Barker J, Kaufmann YJ, Strahler AH, Huete AR, Muller JP, Vanderbilt V, Wan ZM, Teillet P, Carneggie D (1994) Terrestrial remote sensing science and algorithms planned for EOS/MODISE. Int J Remote Sens 15:3587–3620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rychnovská M, Čermák J, Šmíd P (1980) Water output in a stand of Phragmites communis Trin. A comparison of three methods. Acta Sci Nat (Brno) 14:1–27Google Scholar
  68. Schume H (1992) Vegetations- und Standortskundliche Untersuchungen in Eichenwäldern des nordostlichen Niederösterreichs unter Zuhilfenahme multivariater Methoden. FIW-Forschungsbericht. University für Bodenkultur, Vienna, p 138Google Scholar
  69. Schume H (1993) Standortliche Zonierung von Eichenwaldökosystemen in Österreich. In: Neuhuber F (ed) FIW-Forschungberichte 1993/95. University für Bodenkultur, Vienna, pp 118–156Google Scholar
  70. Sellers PJ, Dickinson RE, Randall DA, Betts AK, Hall FG, Berry JA, Collatz GJ, Denning AS, Mooney HA, Nobre CA, Sato N, Field CB, Henderson-Sellers A (1997) Modeling the exchanges of energy, water and carbon between continents and the atmosphere. Science 275:502–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Snell JAK, Brown JK (1978) Comparison of tree biomass estimators – dbh and sapwood area. For Sci 24:455–465Google Scholar
  72. Spanner MA, Pierce LL, Pettersons DL, Running SW (1990) Remote sensing of temperate coniferous forest leaf area index. The influence of canopy closure, understorey vegetation and background reflectance. Int J Remote Sens 11:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stokes A, Berthier S, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Loustau D (2000) Sap flow in trees in influenced by stem movement. In: Spatz HC, Speck T (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd plant biomechanics conference, Freiburg-Badenweiler, 27 Aug–2 Sept 2000. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York, pp 272–277Google Scholar
  74. Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Hruška J, Čermák J, Nadyezhdina N, Nadyezhdin V, Praus L (2002) An evaluation of different methods to investigate root system architecture of urban trees in situ. I. Ground penetrating radar. J Arboric 28:1–9Google Scholar
  75. Tatarinov F, Čermák J (1999) Daily and seasonal variation of stem radius in oak. Ann Sci For 56:579–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tatarinov F, Bochkarev Y, Oltchev A, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J (2005a) Effect of contrasting water supply on the diameter growth of Norway spruce and aspen in mixed stands: a case study from the southern Russian taiga. Ann For Sci 62:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tatarinov FA, Kučera J, Cienciala E (2005b) The analysis of physical background of tree sap flow measurements based on thermal methods. Meas Sci Technol 16:1157–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tatarinov F, Urban J, Čermák J (2008) The application of “clump technique” for root system studies of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior. For Ecol Manage 255:495–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thornton PE (1998) Description of a numerical simulation model for predicting the dynamics of energy, water, carbon and nitrogen in a terrestrial ecosystems. Ph.D. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 280 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Thornton PE, Running SW (1999) An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity and precipitation. Agric For Meteoro 93:211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Urban J, Tatarinov F, Nadezhdina N, Čermák J, Ceulemans R (2009) Crown structure and leaf area of the understorey species Prunus serotina. Trees 23:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van der Zande D, Mereu S, Nadezhdina N, Cermak J, Muys B, Coppin P, Manes F (2009) 3D upscaling of transpiration from leaf to tree using ground based LIDAR: application on a Mediterraen Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) tree. Agric For Meteorol 149:1573–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Verbeeck H, Steppe K, Nadezhdina N, Op de Beeck M, Deckmyn G, Meiresonne L, Lemeur R, Cermak J, Ceulemans R, Janssens IA (2007) Storage water use and transpiration in Scots pine: a modeling analysis using ANAFORE. Tree Physiol 27:1671–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vyskot M (1976) Tree story biomass in lowland forests in South Moravia. Rozpravy CSAV (Praha) 86:86Google Scholar
  85. Waring RH, Running SW (1978) Sapwood water storage: Its contribution to transpiration and effect upon water conductance through the stems of old growth Douglas-fir. Plant Cell Environ 1:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Waring RH, Thies WG, Muscato D (1980) Stem growth per unit of leaf area: a measure of tree vigor. For Sci 26:112–115Google Scholar
  87. Waring RH, Running SW (1998) Forest ecosystems, analysis at multiple scales. Academic, San Diego, CA, 370 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Whitehead D (1978) The estimation of foliage area from sapwood basal area in Scots Pine. Forestry 51:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xiao CW, Curiel Yuste J, Janssens IA, Roskams P, Nachtergale L, Carrara A, Sanchez BY, Ceulemans R (2003) Above- and belowground biomass and net primary production in a 73-year-old Scots pine forest. Tree Physiol 23:505–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zappa M, Gurtz J, Jasper K, Vitvar T (2001) The response of the water flows of the boreal forest region at the Volga’s source area to climatic and land-use changes. Volga Forest Report of Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 21 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Zlatník A (1976) Forest phytocenology. State Agricultural Publishers (SZN), Prague, 500 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Forest Botany, Dendrology and GeobiocenologyMendel University of Agriculture and ForestryBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations