Medieval Roots of the Modern Cosmology
The root of the modern cosmology can be found in Aristotle’s Metaphysics, book XII. The doctrine of the Unmoved Mover propounded here has invited many comments in the Classical Antiquity and later in the world of Islam. Among the classical authors Ptolemy, Alexander of Aphrodisias and Philoponus were the most important commentators who, by commenting Aristotle’s text, transformed his theory. All these author’s relevant texts were translated later into Arabic. In the Islamic world al-Fārābī and later Ibn Sīnā continued their activity and gave a new interpretation to the Neoplatonic cosmology represented by Philoponus. The cosmology developed in the Arabic philosophy served as a starting point both to Thomas Aquinas and Copernicus in Europe.