Advertisement

Plant Community, Plantesamfund

  • Peder Anker
Chapter

Abstract

The plant community concept was first introduced by the Danish botanist Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (1841–1924) in his book “Plantesamfund” of 1895, where he suggested a general theory of explaining different geographical distributions of plants. The title “Plantesamfund” can be translated both as Plant societies and Plant communities, since the Danish word samfund means both “society” and “community” (or alternatively “Gesellschaft” and “Gemeinschaft” in German). To keep the broad meaning of the original title Warming chose the German title “Ökologischen Pflanzengeographie” (1896) and the English title “Oecology of Plants” (1909). The book addressed different factors limiting the geographical distribution of different plants. He used the concept of “community” or “Gemeinschaft” when describing smaller geographical distributions of plants, while “oecologie” or “Ökologie” had a broader geographical meaning corresponding to “society” or “Gesellschaft” as a whole. “Plantesamfund” was not translated into French, though Warming was inspired by the French botanical notion of “le commensal” (dinner partner) in his thinking about the plant community. “Plantesamfund” was also translated into Polish in 1900 and Russian in 1901.

Keywords

Plant Community Systematic Botany Plant Society Plant Geography English Title 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anker P (2001) Imperial ecology: environmental order in the British Empire, 1895-1945. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Christiansen C (1924) Den Danske botaniks historie. Hagerups Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  3. Coleman W (1986) Evolution into ecology? The strategy of Warming’s ecological plant geography. J Hist Ecol 19:181–196Google Scholar
  4. Cowles HC (1909) Ecology of plants. Bota Gaz 48:149–152, 465–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goodland RJ (1975) The tropical origin of ecology: Eugen Warming’s Jubilee. Oikos 26:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. McIntosh RP (1985) The background of ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Nicolson M (1983) The development of plant ecology 1790–1960. Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  8. Phillips J (1931) The biotic community. J Ecol 19:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Prytz S (1984) Warming: Botaniker og Rejsende. Bogan, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  10. Raunkiaer C (1934) The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Rosenvinge LK, Warming E (eds) (1912–1932) The botany of Iceland, 4–5th edn. J. Frimodt, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  12. Rosenvinge LK, Warming E (eds) (1912–1932). The botany of Iceland Vols. 4–5. J. Frimodt, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  13. Schimper AFW (1898) Pflanzengeographie auf physiologischer Grundlage. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  14. Smuts JC (1926) Holism and evolution. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Söderqvist T (1986) The ecologists: from Merry naturalists to Saviours of the Nation. Almquist & Wiksell, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  16. Tansley AG (1909) Oecology of plants. New Phytol 8:218–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tansley AG (1911) Types of British vegetation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Tansley AG (1924) Eug. Warming in memorian. Bot Tidsskr 39:45–56Google Scholar
  19. Tansley AG (1935) The use and the abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Warming E (1879) Haandbok i den systematiske botanik. Philipsens Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  21. Warming E (1880) Den almindelige botanik. Philipsens Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  22. Warming E (1890) Botaniske exkursioner. Hovedbiblioteket, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  23. Warming E (1892) Lagoa Santa: Et bidrag til den biologiske Plantegeografi. Bianco Lunos Kgl. Hof-Bogtrykkeri, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  24. Warming E (1895a) Plantesamfund: Grundtræk af den økologiske plantegeografi. Philipsens Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  25. Warming E (1895b) A handbook of systematic botany. Swan Sonnenschin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Warming E (1896a) Lehrbuch der ökologischen Pflanzengeographie. Gebrüder Borntrager, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  27. Warming E (1896b) Grundtræk af forelesninger over systematisk botanik. Det Nordiske Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  28. Warming E (1909) Oecology of plants: an introduction to the study of plant-communities. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Warming E, Graebner P (1918) Eug. Warming’s lehrbuch de ökologischen pflanzengeographie. Gebrüder Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  30. Warming E (1901–1908) Botany of færöes, 1st–3rd edn. Det Nordiske Forlag, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gallatin School of Individualized Study and Environmental Studies Program at New York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations