The History of Early British and US-American Ecology to 1950

  • Robert McIntosh
Chapter

Abstract

Scientific ecology was anticipated by a long history of natural history observations from classical times, recently termed protoecology (Glacken 1967; Egerton 1976). Ecology (Oekologie) was coined in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, a German biologist and advocate of Darwin (see Chap. 10) One of the earliest uses in English was by Patrick Geddes, a British botanist. In 1880, 20 years before the term ecology was in general use, Geddes offered a hierarchy of the sciences putting ecology under sociology rather than biology (Mairet 1957), anticipating later connections with sociology. Geddes taught the brothers Robert and William Smith who later joined with Arthur G. Tansley in furthering vegetation studies and plant ecology in Britain (Tansley 1911). In 1893 the president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science described “oecology” as a branch of biology coequal with morphology and physiology and “by far the most attractive” (McIntosh 1985).

Keywords

Animal Community Ecological Society Ecosystem Concept British Ecological Society German Biologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams CC (1913) Guide to the study of animal ecology. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams CC (1935) The Relation of general ecology to human ecology. Ecology 16:316–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allee WC, Emerson AE, Park O, Park T, Schmidt KP (1949) Principles of animal ecology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbour M (1995) Ecological fragmentation in the fifties. In: Cronon W (ed) Uncommon ground: toward inventing nature. Norton, New York, pp 75–90Google Scholar
  5. Birge EA, Juday C (1922) The inland lakes of Wisconsin, the plankton 1. Its quantity and composition. Wis Geol Nat Hist Surv Bull 64:1–222Google Scholar
  6. Clements FE (1905) Research methods in ecology. University Publishing Co., LincolnGoogle Scholar
  7. Clements FE (1916) Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publ. 242, Washington DC, pp 1–512Google Scholar
  8. Clements FE (1935) Experimental ecology in the public service. Ecology 16:342–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clements FE, Shelford VE (1939) Bio-ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cockayne L (1918) The importance of ecology with regard to agriculture. N Z J Sci Tech 1:70–74Google Scholar
  11. Cook RE (1977) Raymond Lindeman and the trophic-dynamic concept in ecology. Science 198:22–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottam G, Curtis JT (1949) A method for making rapid surveys of woodlands by means of randomly selected trees. Ecology 30:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cox DL (1979) Charles Elton and the emergence of modern ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Croker RA (2001) Stephen Forbes and the rise of American ecology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Egerton FN (1976) Ecological studies and observations before 1900. In: Taylor BJ, White TJ (eds) Issues and ideas in America. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, pp 311–351Google Scholar
  16. Elton C (1927) Animal ecology. Sidgwick and Jackson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Elton C (1930) Animal ecology and evolution. Claredon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Elton C (1942) Voles, mice and lemmings: problems in population dynamics. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Elton CS, Miller RS (1954) The ecological survey of animal communities with a practical system of classifying habitats by structural characters. J Ecol 42:460–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forbes E (1844) On the light thrown on geology by submarine researches. New Philos J Edinb 36:318–327Google Scholar
  21. Forbes SA (1883) The food relations of the Carabidae and Coccindellidae. Bull Ill State Lab Nat Hist 1:33–64Google Scholar
  22. Forbes SA (1887) The lake as a microcosm. Bull Peoria Sci Assoc 111:77–87. (Reprinted Bull Nat Hist Surv 15:537–550, Nov 1925)Google Scholar
  23. Gause GF (1936) The principles of biocoenology. Q Rev Biol 11:320–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glacken CJ (1967) Traces on the Rhodian Shore. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  25. Gleason HA (1920) Some applications of the quadrat method. Bull Torrey Bot Club 47:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gleason HA (1922) On the relation of species and area. Ecology 3:158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gleason HA (1939) The individualistic concept of the plant association. Am Midl Nat 21:92–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greig-Smith P (1957) Quantitative plant ecology. Butterworths Scientific, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Hopkins AD (1920) The bioclimatic law. J Wash Acad Sci 10:34–40Google Scholar
  30. Kingsland SE (1985) Modeling nature. Episodes in the history of population ecology. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  31. Leopold AS (1949) Sand County Almanac. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Lindeman RL (1942) The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mairet P (1957) Pioneer of sociology. The life and letters of Patrick Geddes. Humphries, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Malthus TR (1798) An essay on the principles of population. Johnson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. May RM (1981) The role of theory in ecology. Am Zool 21:903–910Google Scholar
  36. McIntosh RP (1975) H.A. Gleason, “individualistic ecologist”, 1882–1975: his contributions to ecological theory. Bull Torrey Bot Club 102:253–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McIntosh RP (1985) The background of ecology: concept and theory. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. McIntosh RP (1995) H.A. Gleason’s ‘Individualistic Concept’ and theory of animal communities: a continuing controversy. Biol Rev 70:317–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McIntosh RP (1998) The myth of community as organism. Perspect Biol Med 41:427–438Google Scholar
  40. Nicholson AJ and Bailey VA (1935) The balance of animal populations. Proceedings of the Zool Soc Lond, 3: 551–598Google Scholar
  41. Odum EP (1953) Fundamentals of ecology, 1st edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Preston FW (1948) The commonness and rarity of species. Parts I and II. Ecology 43:185–218, 410–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sears PB (1935) Deserts on the March. University of Oklahoma, NormanGoogle Scholar
  44. Shelford VE (1913) Animal communities in temperate America as illustrated in the Chicago region. Bulletin of the Geographical Society of Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Tansley AG (ed) (1911) Types of British vegetation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Tansley AG (1935) The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taylor WP (1935) Significance of the biological community in ecological studies. Q Rev Biol 10:291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vogt W (1948) Road to survival. William Sloane Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Watt AS (1947) Pattern and process in the plant community. J Ecol 35:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert McIntosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Formerly Professor at the Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

Personalised recommendations