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Transport of Packages with Radioactive Material and Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources in Albania (A Case Study)

  • Luan Qafmolla
  • Shyqyri Arapi
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC, volume 00)

Abstract

The transport of Radioactive Materials (RM) and Radioactive Wastes (RW) involves a potential radiological hazard. To ensure the safety of people, property and the environment, appropriate transport regulations for both domestic and international RM and RW are necessary. Transportation is an integral component of waste management and its safety is of as much public concern as the disposal system. When these materials are transported, they attract a great deal of public attention, and there is particular concern about shipments of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and RW.

RW are produced throughout the world wherever radioactive materials are used and processed. Thus, generators of radioactive wastes include hospitals, industry, education institutions, power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities. Over 300 million packages of radioactive materials have been transported safely during the past year and it is estimated that during the next 15 years in the European Community between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 of Low Level Waste will be conditioned, transported and disposed of each year.

The total activity of radioactive substances transported in Albania (domestic and international) during 2007 has been some thousands Ci of unsealed and solid radioactive sources, mainly 99mTc; 131I, 60Co, 137Cs, 241Am etc., by import – export procedures, and approximately over 850 type A and Type B packages.

A number of international bodies deal with the transport of RW and RM, issuing a large number of regulations, which have been recommended to member states as a basis for national regulations.

Since 2001, the Albanian Government has approved the regulation of Safety Transport of RM and RW in Albania, upgraded in 2006, which has substituted: ‘The Regulation of Safety Transport of Radioactive Materials and Radiation Protection by Ionizing Radiation Sources’ (1971) and ‘The Regulation of Safety Hazard Materials’ (1997).

Keywords

International Atomic Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Radioactive Material Spend Fuel Spend Nuclear Fuel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. The worker’s rules with Radioactive Material and Ionizing Radiation Sources, Act No. 83, dated 27. 05. 1971.Google Scholar
  2. IAEA, Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Standards Series No. ST 1, Edition 1996, 2005.Google Scholar
  3. ‘On Ionizing of Radiation Protection’ Article 3, point (d). Law No. 8025, dated 09.11.1995.Google Scholar
  4. IAEA, Quality Assurance for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series 13, 1994. IAEA, Booklet, Radiation Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. James, H. Saling; Auden, W. Fentiman, Radioactive Waste Management, Second Edition, USA, 2001.Google Scholar
  6. McClure, J.D., The probability of Spent Fuel Transportation Accidents, Report SAND 80-1721, Sandia National Lab, Albuquerque, N.M. 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Applied Nuclear Physic TiranaTiranaAlbania
  2. 2.Radiation Protection OfficeInstitute of Public HealthTiranaAlbania

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