Hematologic Support of the Patient with Malignancy

  • Thomas A. Lane
Part of the Cancer Growth and Progression book series (CAGP, volume 13)


Patients with malignancy frequently have significant anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and coagulation disorders, and therefore frequently require blood component transfusion. As a result, patients with malignancy collectively represent one of the major classes of patients who use blood resources and transfusion services. This chapter will review the transfusion support of patients with malignancy and will not address the role of hematopoietic growth factors in the hematologic support of patients with malignancy, which has recently been reviewed elsewhere [13, 50, 27, 58, 85, 86, 138, 184, 205, 210, 240].


Human Leukocyte Antigen Disseminate Intravascular Coagulation Fresh Freeze Plasma Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Platelet Transfusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Adkins DR, Goodnough LT, Shenoy S, Brown R, Moellering J, Khoury H et al (2000) Effect of leukocyte compatibility on neutrophil increment after transfusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized prophylactic granulocyte transfusions and on clinical outcomes after stem cell transplantation. Blood 95:3605–3612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alavi JB, Root RK, Djerassi I, Evans AE, Gluckman SJ, MacGregor RR et al (1977) A randomized clinical trial of granulocyte transfusions for infection in acute leukemia. N Engl J Med 296:706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson KC, Braine HG (1990) Specialized cell component therapy. Semin Oncol Nurs 6:140–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson K (2003) Broadening the spectrum of patient groups at risk for transfusion-associated GVHD: implications for universal irradiation of cellular blood components. Transfusion 43:1652–1654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andreu G, Dewailly J, Leberre C, Quarre MC, Bidet ML, Tardivel R et al (1988) Prevention of HLA immunization with leukocyte-poor packed red cells and platelet concentrates obtained by filtration. Blood 72:964–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    AuBuchon JP, Elfath MD, Popovsky MA, Stromberg RR, Pickard C, Herschel L et al (1997) Evaluation of a new prestorage leukoreduction filter for red blood cell units. Vox Sanguinis 72:101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Avvisati G, Tirindelli MC, Annibali O (2003) Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic risk in cancer patients. Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol 48, S13–S16Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baldwin ML, Ness PM, Scott D, Braine H, Kickler TS (1988) Alloimmunization to D antigen and HLA in D-negative immunosuppressed oncology patients. Transfusion 28:330–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartley AN, Carpenter JB, Berg MP (2009) D+ platelet transfusions in D- patients: cause for concern? Immunohematology 25(1):5–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Basser R (2002) The impact of thrombopoietin on clinical practice. Curr Pharm Des 8:369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bates SM, Ginsberg JS (2004) Treatment of deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 351:268–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bearman SI (1995) The syndrome of hepatic veno-occlusive disease after marrow transplantation. Blood 85:3005–3020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennett CL, Silver SM, Djulbegovic B et al (2008) Venous thromboembolism and mortality associated with recombinant erythropoietin and darbepoetin administration for the treatment of cancer-associated anemia. JAMA 299(8):914–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benson K, Marks AR, Marshall MJ, Goldstein JD (1994) Fatal graft-versus-host disease associated with transfusions of HLA-matched, HLA-homozygous platelets from unrelated donors. Transfusion 34:432–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A et al (2001) Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 344:699–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bhatia S, McCullough J, Perry EH, Clay M, Ramsay NK, Neglia JP (1994) Granulocyte transfusions: efficacy in treating fungal infections in neutropenic patients following bone marrow transplantation. Transfusion 34:226–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bick RL (2003) Cancer-associated thrombosis. N Engl J Med 349:109–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bishop JF, Matthews JP, McGrath K, Yuen K, Wolf MM, Szer J (1991) Factors influencing 20-hour increments after platelet transfusion. Transfusion 31:392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bishop JF, Matthews JP, Yuen K, McGrath K, Wolf MM, Szer J (1992) The definition of refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Transfus Med 2:35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bishop JF, McGrath K, Wolf MM, Matthews JP, De Luise T, Holdsworth R et al (1988) Clinical factors influencing the efficacy of pooled platelet transfusions. Blood 71:383–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blajchman MA (2002) Immunomodulation and blood transfusion. Am J Ther 9:389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blajchman MA (2003) Substitutes and alternatives to platelet transfusions in thrombocytopenic patients. J Thromb Haemost 1:1637–1641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blay JY, Le Cesne A, Mermet C, Maugard C, Ravaud A, Chevreau C et al (1998) A risk model for thrombocytopenia requiring platelet transfusion after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Blood 92:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blumberg N (1998) Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion does not cause adverse sequelae in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis of unconfounded studies. Br J Surg 85:1163–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blumberg N, Heal JM (1994) Perioperative blood transfusion and colorectal cancer recurrence. Transfusion 34:450–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bortul M, Calligaris L, Roseano M, Leggeri A (2003) Blood transfusions and results after curative resection for gastric cancer. Suppl Tumori 2:S27–S30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bosanquet N, Tolley K (2003) Treatment of anaemia in cancer patients: implications for supportive care in the national health service cancer plan. Curr Med Res Opin 19:643–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bowden R, Sayers M (1990) The risk of transmitting cytomegalovirus infection by fresh frozen plasma. Transfusion 30:762–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bowden RA, Slichter SJ, Sayers M, Weisdorf D, Cays M, Schoch G et al (1995) A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection after marrow transplant. Blood 86:3598–3603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowden RA, Slichter SJ, Sayers MH, Mori M, Cays MJ, Meyers JD (1991) Use of leukocyte-depleted platelets and cytomegalovirus-seronegative red blood cells for prevention of primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplant. Blood 78:246–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Breathnach O, Donnellan P, Collins D, McNicholas W, Crown J (1999) Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a patient with breast cancer on chemotherapy: case report and review of the literature. Ann Oncol 10:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bron D, Meuleman N, Mascaux C (2001) Biological basis of anemia. Semin Oncol 28:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brzica SM Jr, Pineda AA, Taswell HF, Rhodes KH (1977) Chronic granulomatous disease and the Mcleod phenotype. Successful treatment of infection with granulocyte transfusions resulting in subsequent hemolytic transfusion reaction. Mayo Clin Proc 52:153–156Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Busch MP (2001) Insights into the epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection from studies of infected donors and blood product recipients. Transfus Clin Biol 8:200–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Busch OR, Hop WC, Marquet RL, Jeekel J (1993) Prognostic impact of blood transfusions on disease-free survival in colorectal carcinoma. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 200:21–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Busch OR, Hop WC, Marquet RL, Jeekel J (1994) Blood transfusions and local tumor recurrence in colorectal cancer. Evidence of a noncausal relationship. Ann Surg 220:791–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bussel J, Kuter D, Pullarkat V, Lyons R, Guo M, Nichol J (2009) Safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with romiplostim in thrombocytopenic patients with chronic ITP. Blood 113:2161–2171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Calhoun EA, Chang CH, Welshman EE, Fishman DA, Lurain JR, Bennett CL (2001) Evaluating the total costs of chemotherapy-induced toxicity: results from a pilot study with ovarian cancer patients. Oncologist 6:441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cantor SB, Hudson DV Jr, Lichtiger B, Rubenstein EB (1998) Costs of blood transfusion: a process-flow analysis. J Clin Oncol 16:2364–2370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carreras E (2000) Veno-occlusive disease of the liver after hemopoietic cell transplantation. Eur J Haematol 64:281–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Caspar CB, Seger RA, Burger J, Gmur J (1993) Effective stimulation of donors for granulocyte transfusions with recombinant methionyl granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 81:2866–2871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cella D, Bron D (1999) The effect of Epoetin alfa on quality of life in anemic cancer patients. Cancer Pract 7:177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cella D, Viswanathan H, Hays R et al (2008) Development of a fatigue and functional impact scale (FFIS) in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer 113(6):1480–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chang J (2000) Chemotherapy dose reduction and delay in clinical practice: evaluating the risk to patient outcome in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 36:11–14Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chiavetta JA, Herst R, Freedman J, Axcell TJ, Wall AJ, Rooy SC (1996) A survey of red cell use in 45 hospitals in central Ontario, Canada. Transfusion 36:699–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chow E, Danjoux CE, Pataki I, Franssen E, Jenkin RD (1999) Effect of hemoglobin on radiotherapy response in children with medulloblastoma: should patients with a low hemoglobin be transfused? Med Pediatr Oncol 32:395–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cid J, Ortin X, Elies E, Castella D, Panades M, Martin-Vega C (2002) Absence of anti-D alloimmunization in hematologic patients after D-incompatible platelet transfusions. Transfusion 42:173–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clark OA, Lyman G, Castro AA, Clark LG, Djulbegovic B (2003) Colony stimulating factors for chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003039Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coiffier B, Guastalla JP, Pujade-Lauraine E, Bastit P (2001) Predicting cancer-associated anaemia in patients receiving non-platinum chemotherapy: results of a retrospective survey. Eur J Cancer 37:1617–1623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cole PD, Adam HM (2009) Hematopoietic growth factors in pediatric patients. Pediatr Rev 30(1):30–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Crawford J, Cella D, Cleeland CS, Cremieux PY, Demetri GD, Sarokhan BJ et al (2002) Relationship between changes in hemoglobin level and quality of life during chemotherapy in anemic cancer patients receiving epoetin alfa therapy. Cancer 95:888–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Crawford J, Dale DC, Lyman GH (2004) Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: risks, consequences, and new directions for its management. Cancer 100:228–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cremieux PY, Barrett B, Anderson K, Slavin MB (2000) Cost of outpatient blood transfusion in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 18:2755–2761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cullis JO, Duncombe AS, Dudley JM, Lumley HS, Apperley JF, Smith AG (1998) Acute leukaemia in Jehovah’s Witnesses. Br J Haematol 100:664–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dale DC (2002) Colony-stimulating factors for the management of neutropenia in cancer patients. Drugs 62(1):1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dan ME, Schiffer CA (2003) Strategies for managing refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Curr Hematol Rep 2:158–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dana BW, Durie BG, White RF, Huestis DW (1981) Concomitant administration of granulocyte transfusions and amphotericin B in neutropenic patients: absence of significant pulmonary toxicity. Blood 57:90–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Demetri GD (2001) Targeted approaches for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. Oncologist 6:15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Demetri GD, Kris M, Wade J, Degos L, Cella D (1998) Quality-of-life benefit in chemotherapy patients treated with epoetin alfa is independent of disease response or tumor type: results from a prospective community oncology study. Procrit Study Group. J Clin Oncol 16:3412–3425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dicato M (2003) Anemia in cancer: some pathophysiological aspects. Oncologist 8:19–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dodd RY (1992) The risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. N Engl J Med 327:419–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dougenis D, Patrinou V, Filos KS, Theodori E, Vagianos K, Maniati A (2001) Blood use in lung resection for carcinoma: perioperative elective anaemia does not compromise the early outcome. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 20:372–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Drew WL, Tegtmeier G, Alter HJ, Laycock ME, Miner RC, Busch MP (2003) Frequency and duration of plasma CMV viremia in seroconverting blood donors and recipients. Transfusion 43:309–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dunphy EP, Petersen IA, Cox RS, Bagshaw MA (1989) The influence of initial hemoglobin and blood pressure levels on results of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16:1173–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dutcher JP, Kendall J, Norris D, Schiffer C, Aisner J, Wiernik PH (1989) Granulocyte transfusion therapy and amphotericin B: adverse reactions? Am J Hematol 31:102–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, O’Connell BA, Levy C, Kendall JA et al (1984) Incidence of thrombocytopenia and serious hemorrhage among patients with solid tumors. Cancer 53:557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Einsele H, Northoff H, Neumeister B (2004) Granulocyte transfusion. Vox Sanguinis 87:205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elliott MA, Nichols WL Jr, Plumhoff EA, Ansell SM, Dispenzieri A, Gastineau DA et al (2003) Posttransplantation thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a single-center experience and a contemporary review. Mayo Clin Proc 78:421–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Elting LS, Cantor SB, Martin CG, Hamblin L, Kurtin D, Rivera E et al (2003) Cost of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia among patients with lymphoma or solid tumors. Cancer 97:1541–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Elting LS, Martin CG, Kurtin DJ, Cantor SB, Rubenstein EB, Rodriguez S et al (2002) The Bleeding Risk Index: a clinical prediction rule to guide the prophylactic use of platelet transfusions in patients with lymphoma or solid tumors. Cancer 94:3252–3262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Elting LS, Rubenstein EB, Martin CG, Kurtin D, Rodriguez S, Laiho E et al (2001) Incidence, cost, and outcomes of bleeding and chemotherapy dose modification among solid tumor patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. J Clin Oncol 19:1137–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ely EW, Laterre PF, Angus DC, Helterbrand JD, Levy H, Dhainaut JF et al (2003) Drotrecogin alfa (activated) administration across clinically important subgroups of patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 31:12–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Enright H, Davis K, Gernsheimer T, McCullough JJ, Woodson R, Slichter SJ (2003) Factors influencing moderate to severe reactions to PLT transfusions: experience of the TRAP multicenter clinical trial. Transfusion 43:1545–1552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Estrin JT, Schocket L, Kregenow R, Henry DH (1999) A retrospective review of blood transfusions in cancer patients with anemia. Oncologist 4:318–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Falanga A, Rickles FR (2003) Pathogenesis and management of the bleeding diathesis in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 16:463–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ferrara JL (1995) The febrile platelet transfusion reaction: a cytokine shower. Transfusion 35:89–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fortuny IE, Bloomfield CD, Hadlock DC, Goldman A, Kennedy BJ, McCullough JJ (1975) Granylocyte transfusion: a controlled study in patients with acuute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Transfusion 15:548–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fuge R, Bird JM, Fraser A, Hart D, Hunt L, Cornish JM et al (2001) The clinical features, risk factors and outcome of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura occurring after bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol 113:58–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Galan AM, Casals E, Estelrich J, Hernandez MR, Bozzo J, Reverter J et al (2002) Possible hemostatic effect of synthetic liposomes in experimental studies under flow conditions. Haematologica 87:615–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gaydos LA, Freireich EJ, Mantel N (1962) The quantitative relation between platelet count and hemorrhage in patients with acute leukemia. N Engl J Med 266:905–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    George J, Terrell D (2008) Novel thrombopoietic agents: a new era for management of patients with thrombocytopenia. Haematologica 93(10):1445–1449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gharpure VS, Devine SM, Holland HK, Geller RB, O’Toole K, Wingard JR (1995) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with FK506 following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 16:715–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Glaser CM, Millesi W, Kornek GV, Lang S, Schull B, Watzinger F et al (2001) Impact of hemoglobin level and use of recombinant erythropoietin on efficacy of preoperative chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:705–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Glaspy J, Bukowski R, Steinberg D, Taylor C, Tchekmedyian S, Vadhan-Raj S (1997) Impact of therapy with epoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies during cancer chemotherapy in community oncology practice. Procrit study group. J Clin Oncol 15:1218–1234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Glaspy JA (2003) Hematopoietic management in oncology practice. Part 1. Myeloid growth factors. Oncology (Huntingt) 17:1593–1603Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Glaspy JA (2003) Hematopoietic management in oncology practice. Part 2. Erythropoietic factors. Oncology (Huntingt) 17:1724–1730Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Goldberg GL, Gibbon DG, Smith HO, DeVictoria C, Runowicz CD, Burns ER (1994) Clinical impact of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with gynecologic cancer. J Clin Oncol 12:2317–2320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Goodnough LT, Brecher ME, Kanter MH, AuBuchon JP (1999) Transfusion medicine. First of two parts – blood transfusion. N Engl J Med 340:438–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goodnough LT, Brecher ME, Kanter MH, AuBuchon JP (1999) Transfusion medicine. Second of two parts – blood conservation. N Engl J Med 340:525–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gould SA, Moore EE, Hoyt DB, Burch JM, Haenel JB, Garcia J et al (1998) The first randomized trial of human polymerized hemoglobin as a blood substitute in acute trauma and emergent surgery. J Am Coll Surg 187:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Graw RG Jr, Herzig G, Perry S, Henderson ES (1972) Normal granulocyte transfusion therapy: treatment of septicemia due to gram-negative bacteria. N Engl J Med 287:367–371Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Grogan M, Thomas GM, Melamed I, Wong FL, Pearcey RG, Joseph PK et al (1999) The importance of hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer 86:1528–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Groopman JE, Itri LM (1999) Chemotherapy-induced anemia in adults: incidence and treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:1616–1634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Haem BJ (ed) (2003) Guidelines for the use of platelet transfusions. Br J Haematol 122:10–23Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hambleton J, Leung LL, Levi M (2002) Coagulation: consultative hemostasis. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program) 335–352Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Heddle NM (2004) Universal leukoreduction and acute transfusion reactions: putting the puzzle together. Transfusion 44:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Heddle N, Cook R, Tinmouth A et al (2009) A randomized controlled trial comparing standard- and low-dose strategies for transfusion of platelets (SToP) to patients with thrombocytopenia. Blood 113:1564–1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Heddle NM, Klama L, Singer J, Richards C, Fedak P, Walker I et al (1994) The role of the plasma from platelet concentrates in transfusion reactions. N Engl J Med 331:625–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Heiss MM, Mempel W, Delanoff C, Jauch KW, Gabka C, Mempel M et al (1994) Blood transfusion-modulated tumor recurrence: first results of a randomized study of autologous versus allogeneic blood transfusion in colorectal cancer surgery. J Clin Oncol 12:1859–1867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ III (2000) Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study. Archiv Intern Med 160:809–815Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Henke M, Laszig R, Rube C, Schafer U, Haase KD, Schilcher B et al (2003) Erythropoietin to treat head and neck cancer patients with anaemia undergoing radiotherapy: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 362:1255–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Herzig RH, Herzig GP, Graw RG Jr, Bull MI, Ray KK (1977) Successful granulocyte transfusion therapy for gram-negative septicemia. A prospectively randomized controlled study. N Engl J Med 296:701–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Higby DJ, Yates JW, Henderson ES, Holland JF (1975) Filtration leukapheresis for granulocyte transfusion therapy. Clinical and laboratory studies. N Engl J Med 292:761–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hillyer CD, Josephson CD, Blajchman MA, Vostal JG, Epstein JS, Goodman JL (2003) Bacterial contamination of blood components: risks, strategies, and regulation: joint ASH and AABB educational session in transfusion medicine. Hematology 575–589Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hubel K, Dale DC, Engert A, Liles WC (2001) Current status of granulocyte (neutrophil) transfusion therapy for infectious diseases. J Infect Dis 183:321–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, Bow EJ, Brown AE, Calandra T et al (2002) 2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis 34:730–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Humphreys BD, Sharman JP, Henderson JM, Clark JW, Marks PW, Rennke HG et al (2004) Gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Cancer 100:2664–2670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hutchinson K, Kopko PM, Muto KN, Tuscano J, O’Donnell RT, Holland PV et al (2002) Early diagnosis and successful treatment of a patient with transfusion-associated GVHD with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell-transplantation. Transfusion 42:1567–1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ichihashi T, Naoe T, Yoshida H, Kiyoi H, Fukutani H, Kubo K et al (1992) Haemolytic uraemic syndrome during FK506 therapy. Lancet 340:60–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Janatpour K, Holland PV (2002) Noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Curr Hematol Rep 1:149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jansen AJ G, Caljouw MA A, Hop WC J, van Rhenen DJ, Schipperus MR (2004) Feasibility of a restrictive red-cell transfusion policy for patients treated with intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. Transfus Med 14:33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jefferies LC, Sachais BS, Young DS (2001) Blood transfusion costs by diagnosis-related groupsin 60 university hospitals in 1995. Transfusion 41:522–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kampel LJ (2003) Challenging problems in advanced malignancy: CASE 2. disseminated intravascular coagulation in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 21:3170–3171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kashyap A, Wingard J, Cagnoni P, Jones R, Tarantolo S, Hu W et al (2002) Intravenous versus oral busulfan as part of a busulfan/cyclophosphamide preparative regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Decreased incidence of hepatic venoocclusive disease (HVOD), HVOD-related mortality, and overall 100-day mortality. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 8:493–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kaushansky K (2000) Use of thrombopoietic growth factors in acute leukemia. Leukemia 14:505–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kekomaki S, Volin L, Koistinen P, Koivunen E, Koskimies S, Ruutu T et al (1998) Successful treatment of platelet transfusion refractoriness: the use of platelet transfusions matched for both human leucocyte antigens (HLA) and human platelet alloantigens (HPA) in alloimmunized patients with leukaemia. Eur J Haematol 60:112–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    King KE, Shirey RS, Thoman SK, Bensen-Kennedy D, Tanz WS, Ness PM (2004) Universal leukoreduction decreases the incidence of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions to RBCs. Transfusion 44:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Knight K, Wade S, Balducci L (2004) Prevalence and outcomes of anemia in cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Med 116(Suppl 7A):11S–26SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Koeller JM (1998) Clinical guidelines for the treatment of cancer-related anemia. Pharmacotherapy 18:156–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kuter DJ, Begley CG (2002) Recombinant human thrombopoietin: basic biology and evaluation of clinical studies. Blood 100:3457–3469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Laszlo D, Agazzi A, Goldhirsch A, Cinieri S, Bertolini F, Rabascio C et al (2004) Tailored therapy of adult acute leukaemia in Jehovah’s Witnesses: unjustified reluctance to treat. Eur J Haematol 72:264–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lee DH, Blajchman MA (2000) Platelet substitutes and novel platelet products. Exp Opin Investig Drugs 9:457–469Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lee WR, Berkey B, Marcial V, Fu KK, Cooper JS, Vikram B et al (1998) Anemia is associated with decreased survival and increased locoregional failure in patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma: a secondary analysis of RTOG 85–27. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:1069–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leitman SF, Tisdale JF, Bolan CD, Popovsky MA, Klippel JH, Balow JE et al (2003) Transfusion-associated GVHD after fludarabine therapy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Transfusion 43:1667–1671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Levi M (2001) Cancer and DIC. Haemostasis 31(Suppl 1):47–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Levi M (2004) Current understanding of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Br J Haematol 124:567–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Leyland-Jones B (2003) Breast cancer trial with erythropoietin terminated unexpectedly. Lancet Oncol 4:459–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Liles WC, Rodger E, Dale DC (2000) Combined administration of G-CSF and dexamethasone for the mobilization of granulocytes in normal donors: optimization of dosing. Transfusion 40:642–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lim YA, Lee WG, Cho SR, Hyun BH, Sc D (2004) A study of blood usage by diagnoses in a Korean university hospital. Vox Sanguinis 86:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Littlewood TJ, Bajetta E, Nortier JW, Vercammen E, Rapoport B (2001) Effects of epoetin alfa on hematologic parameters and quality of life in cancer patients receiving nonplatinum chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 19:2865–2874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Littlewood TJ, Cella D, Nortier JW (2002) Erythropoietin improves quality of life. Lancet Oncol 3:459–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Littlewood TJ, Nortier J, Rapoport B, Pawlicki M, de Wasch G, Vercammen E et al (2003) Epoetin alfa corrects anemia and improves quality of life in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving non-platinum chemotherapy. Hematol Oncol 21:169–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lopez JA, Kearon C, Lee AY Y (2004) Deep venous thrombosis. Hematology 2004:439–456Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lyman GH (2000) A predictive model for neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy. Pharmacotherapy 20:104S–111SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Manna A, Cordani S, Canessa P, Pronzato P (2003) CMV infection and pneumonia in hematological malignancies. J Infect Chemother 9:265–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Marec-Berard P, Blay JY, Schell M, Buclon M, Demaret C, Ray-Coquard I (2003) Risk model predictive of severe anemia requiring RBC transfusion after chemotherapy in pediatric solid tumor patients. J Clin Oncol 21:4235–4238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Marsh JCW, Bevan DH (2002) Haematological care of the jehovah’s witness patient. Br J Haematol 119:25–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Marsh J, Ganser A, Stadler M (2009) Hematopoietic growth factors in the treatment of acquired bone marrow failure states. Semin Hematol 44:138–147Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Mathoulin-Pelissier S, Salmi LR, Verret C, Demoures B (2000) Blood transfusion in a random sample of hospitals in France. Transfusion 40:1140–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Matsumoto T, Wada H, Nishiyama H, Hirano T, Sakakura M, Nishii K et al (2004) Hemostatic abnormalities and changes following bone marrow transplantation. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 10:341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McCullough J, Weiblen BJ, Clay ME, Forstrom L (1981) Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes. Blood 58:164–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    McGavin JK, Goa KL (2001) Ganciclovir: an update of its use in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients. Drugs 61:1153–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mehta J, Powles R, Singhal S, Horton C, Hamblin M, Zomas A et al (1996) Transfusion requirements after bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings: effects of donor-recipient ABO incompatibility. Bone Marrow Transplant 18:151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Menitove JE (2002) Immunoprophylaxis for D-patients receiving platelet transfusions from D-donors? Transfusion. 2002;42:136–138. Transfusion 42:1618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mercadante S, Gebbia V, Marrazzo A, Filosto S (2000) Anaemia in cancer: pathophysiology and treatment. Cancer Treat Rev 26:303–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Meyers JD, Flournoy N, Thomas ED (1986) Risk factors for cytomegalovirus infection after human marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis 153:478–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Miller WJ et al (1991) Prevention of CMV infection following BMT: a RCT of blood product screening Bone Marrow Transplant 7:227–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mohandas K, Aledort L (1995) Transfusion requirements, risks, and costs for patients with malignancy. Transfusion 35:427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Molnar R, Johnson R, Sweat LT, Geiger TL (2002) Absence of D alloimmunization in D- pediatric oncology patients receiving D-incompatible single-donor platelets. Transfusion 42:177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Moroff G, Garratty G, Heal JM, MacPherson BR, Stroncek D, Huang ST et al (1992) Selection of platelets for refractory patients by HLA matching and prospective crossmatching. Transfusion 32:633–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Moroff G, Leitman SF, Luban NL (1997) Principles of blood irradiation, dose validation, and quality control. Transfusion 37:1084–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Natanson C, Kern SJ, Lurie P, Banks SM, Wolfe SM (2008) Cell-free hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and risk of myocardial infarction and death: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 299(19):2304–2312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nichols WG, Price TH, Gooley T, Corey L, Boeckh M (2003) Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infection after receipt of leukoreduced blood products. Blood 101:4195–4200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Nollet KE, Holland PV (2003) Toward a coalition against transfusion-associated GVHD. Transfusion 43:1655–1657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Nosotti M, Rebulla P, Riccardi D, Baisi A, Bellaviti N, Rosso L et al (2003) Correlation between perioperative blood transfusion and prognosis of patients subjected to surgery for stage I lung cancer. Chest 124:102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    O’Shaughnessy DF, Atterbury C, Bolton Maggs P, Murphy M, Thomas D, Yates S et al (2004) Guidelines for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and cryosupernatant. Br J Haematol 126:11–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Oksanen K (1994) Leukocyte-depleted blood components prevent platelet refractoriness in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Eur J Haematol 53:100–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Oksanen K, Kekomaki R, Ruutu T, Koskimies S, Myllyla G (1991) Prevention of alloimmunization in patients with acute leukemia by use of white cell-reduced blood components – a randomized trial. Transfusion 31:588–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Opelz G, Terasaki PI (1976) Prolongation effect of blood transfusions on kidney graft survival. Transplantation 22:380–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ozer H, Armitage JO, Bennett CL, Crawford J, Demetri GD, Pizzo PA et al (2000) 2000 Update of recommendations for the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors: evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines. J Clin Oncol 18:3558–3585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Paglino JC, Pomper GJ, Fisch GS, Champion MH, Snyder EL (2004) Reduction of febrile but not allergic reactions to RBCs and platelets after conversion to universal prestorage leukoreduction. Transfusion 44:16–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Petersen SL, Madsen HO, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A, Jakobsen BK, Sengelov H et al (2004) Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation with non-myeloablative conditioning in the outpatient setting: results, complications and admission requirements in a single institution. Br J Haematol 125:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Pettitt AR, Clark RE (1994) Thrombotic microangiopathy following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 14:495–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Petz LD, Garratty G, Calhoun L, Clark BD, Terasaki PI, Gresens C et al (2000) Selecting donors of platelets for refractory patients on the basis of HLA antibody specificity. Transfusion 40:1446–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pflieger H, Arnold R, Bhaduri S, Bultmann B, Goldmann SF, Haghou F et al (1979) Beneficial effect of granulocyte transfusions in patients with defects in granulocyte function and severe infections. Scand J Haematol 22:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pihusch R, Salat C, Schmidt E, Gohring P, Pihusch M, Hiller E et al (2002) Hemostatic complications in bone marrow transplantation: a retrospective analysis of 447 patients. Transplantation 74:1303–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Practice Guidelines Development Task Force of the College of American Pathologists (1994) Practice parameter for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets. Fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets administration. JAMA 271:777–781Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Prandoni P (2002) Cancer and thromboembolic disease: how important is the risk of thrombosis? Cancer Treat Rev 28:133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Preiksaitis JK, Brown L, McKenzie M (1988) The risk of cytomegalovirus infection in seronegative transfusion recipients not receiving exogenous immunosuppression. J Infect Dis 157:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Preiksaitis JK, Desai S, Vaudry W, Roberts S, Akabutu J, Grundy P et al (1997) Transfusion- and community-acquired cytomegalovirus infection in children with malignant disease: a prospective study. Transfusion 37:941–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Price TH (2002) Granulocyte transfusion in the G-CSF era. Int J Hematol 76(Suppl 2):77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Price TH, Bowden RA, Boeckh M, Bux J, Nelson K, Liles WC et al (2000) Phase I/II trial of neutrophil transfusions from donors stimulated with G-CSF and dexamethasone for treatment of patients with infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 95:3302–3309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Przepiorka D, Leparc GF, Werch J, Lichtiger B (1996) Prevention of transfusion-associated cytomegalovirus infection. Practice parameter. American society of clinical pathologists. Am J Clin Pathol 106:163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Quirt I, Robeson C, Lau CY, Kovacs M, Burdette-Radoux S, Dolan S et al (2001) Epoetin alfa therapy increases hemoglobin levels and improves quality of life in patients with cancer-related anemia who are not receiving chemotherapy and patients with anemia who are receiving chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 19:4126–4134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ray-Coquard I, Le Cesne A, Rubio MT, Mermet J, Maugard C, Ravaud A et al (1999) Risk model for severe anemia requiring red blood cell transfusion after cytotoxic conventional chemotherapy regimens. J Clin Oncol 17:2840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Rebulla P (2002) Refractoriness to platelet transfusion. Curr Opin Hematol 9:516–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rebulla P, Finazzi G, Marangoni F, Avvisati G, Gugliotta L, Tognoni G et al (1997) The threshold for prophylactic platelet transfusions in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 337:1870–1875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Reesink HW, Engelfriet CP, Tegtmeier GE, O’Riordan J, Eglin R, Barbara JA et al (2002) Prevention of post-transfusion cytomegalovirus: leucoreduction or screening? Vox Sang 83:72–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Reid TJ (2003) Hb-based oxygen carriers: are we there yet? Transfusion 43:280–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Reiter A, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, Hiddemann W, Sauter S, Henze G et al (1994) Chemotherapy in 998 unselected childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Results and conclusions of the multicenter trial ALL-BFM 86. Blood 84:3122–3133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Rickles FR, Levine M, Edwards RL (1992) Hemostatic alterations in cancer patients. Cancer Metastasis Rev 11:237–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rickles FR, Falanga A (2001) Molecular basis for the relationship between thrombosis and cancer. Thrombosis Res 102:V215–V224Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rizzo JD, Lichtin AE, Woolf SH, Seidenfeld J, Bennett CL, Cella D et al (2002) Use of epoetin in patients with cancer: evidence-based clinical practice guidelines of the American society of clinical oncology and the American society of hematology. J Clin Oncol 20:4083–4107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Rizzo JD, Somerfield MR, Hagerty KL et al (2008) Use of epoetin and darbepoetin in patients with cancer: 2007 American society of hematology/American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update. Blood 111(1):25–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ronghe MD, Foot AB, Cornish JM, Steward CG, Carrington D, Goulden N et al (2002) The impact of transfusion of leucodepleted platelet concentrates on cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol 118:1124–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ruggiero A, Riccardi R (2002) Interventions for anemia in pediatric cancer patients. Med Pediatr Oncol 39:451–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Ruutu T, Hermans J, Niederwieser D, Gratwohl A, Kiehl M, Volin L et al (2002) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a survey of the European group for blood and marrow transplantation (EBMT). Br J Haematol 118:1112–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Rzyman W, Dziadziuszko R, Skokowski J, Wilimski R, Raiter A, Szymanowska A et al (2003) The influence of blood transfusion on survival in operated non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:755–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Saarinen UM, Kekomaki R, Siimes MA, Myllyla G (1990) Effective prophylaxis against platelet refractoriness in multitransfused patients by use of leukocyte-free blood components. Blood 75:512–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Safdar A, Hanna HA, Boktour M, Kontoyiannis DP, Hachem R, Lichtiger B et al (2004) Impact of high-dose granulocyte transfusions in patients with cancer with candidemia. Cancer 101:2859–2865Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Sallah S, Wan JY, Nguyen NP (2002) Venous thrombosis in patients with solid tumors: determination of frequency and characteristics. Thromb Haemost 87:575–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sallah S, Wan JY, Nguyen NP, Hanrahan LR, Sigounas G (2004) Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors: clinical and pathological study. Thromb Haemost 86(3):828–833Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Samadi DS, Goldberg AN, Orlandi RR (2001) Granulocyte transfusion in the management of fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 15:263–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Schiffer CA (2001) Diagnosis and management of refractoriness to platelet transfusion. Blood Rev 15:175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Schiffer CA, Anderson KC, Bennett CL, Bernstein S, Elting LS, Goldsmith M et al (2001) Platelet transfusion for patients with cancer: clinical practice guidelines of the American society of clinical oncology. J Clin Oncol 19:1519–1538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Schonewille H, Haak HL, van Zijl AM (1999) Alloimmunization after blood transfusion in patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases. Transfusion 39:763–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Schroeder M (2002) Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Br J Haematol 117:275–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Seftel MD, Growe GH, Petraszko T, Benny WB, Le A, Lee CY et al (2004) Universal prestorage leukoreduction in Canada decreases platelet alloimmunization and refractoriness. Blood 103:333–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Segal BH, Leto TL, Gallin JI, Malech HL, Holland SM (2000) Genetic, biochemical, and clinical features of chronic granulomatous disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 79:170–200Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sheffield R, Sullivan SD, Saltiel E, Nishimura L (1997) Cost comparison of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in cancer chemotherapy-induced anemia. Ann Pharmacother 31:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Shivdasani RA, Haluska FG, Dock NL, Dover JS, Kineke EJ, Anderson KC (1993) Brief report: graft-versus-host disease associated with transfusion of blood from unrelated HLA-homozygous donors. N Engl J Med 328:766–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Siena S, Secondino S, Giannetta L, Carminati O, Pedrazzoli P (2003) Optimising management of neutropenia and anaemia in cancer chemotherapy-advances in cytokine therapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 48:S39–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Silver DF, Piver MS (1999) Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on the antitumor effect of cisplatin in SCID mice bearing human ovarian cancer: a possible oxygen effect 1. Gynecol Oncol 73:280–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Slichter SJ, Kaufman RM, Assmann SF et al (2010) dose of prophylactic platelet transfusions and prevention of hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 362:600–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Smith TJ, Khatcheressian J, Lyman GH, Ozer H et al (2006) 2006 update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol 24(19):3187–3205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Sniecinski I, O’Donnell MR, Nowicki B, Hill LR (1988) Prevention of refractoriness and HLA-alloimmunization using filtered blood products. Blood 71:1402–1407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Spivak JL (1994) Cancer-related anemia: its causes and characteristics. Semin Oncol 21:3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Stasi R, Abriani L, Beccaglia P, Terzoli E, Amadori S (2003) Cancer-related fatigue: evolving concepts in evaluation and treatment. Cancer 98:1786–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Stowell CP (2002) Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Curr Opin Hematol 9:537–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Straus DJ (2003) Epoetin alfa therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies and mild anemia. Clin Lymphoma 4(Suppl 1):S13–S17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Strauss RG (1993) Therapeutic granulocyte transfusions in 1993. Blood 81:1675–1678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Strauss RG (1994) Granulocyte transfusion therapy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 8:1159–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Stroncek DF, Leonard K, Eiber G, Malech HL, Gallin JI, Leitman SF (1996) Alloimmunization after granulocyte transfusions. Transfusion 36:1009–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Sullivan MT, McCullough J, Schreiber GB, Wallace EL (2002) Blood collection and transfusion in the United States in 1997. Transfusion 42:1253–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Takatsuka H, Wakae T, Toda A, Itoi H, Okada M, Misawa M et al (2004) Association of Helicobacter pylori> with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation. Clin Transplant 18:547–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Takeoka S, Okamura Y, Teramura Y, Watanabe N, Suzuki H, Tsuchida E et al (2003) Function of fibrinogen gamma-chain dodecapeptide-conjugated latex beads under flow. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:773–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Tartter PI (1992) The association of perioperative blood transfusion with colorectal cancer recurrence. Ann Surg 216:633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Tegtmeier GE (1989) Posttransfusion cytomegalovirus infections. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113:236–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    The Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets (TRAP) Study Group (1997) Leukocyte reduction and ultraviolet B irradiation of platelets to prevent alloimmunization and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. N Engl J Med 337:1861–1870Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Thews O, Koenig R, Kelleher DK, Kutzner J, Vaupel P (1998) Enhanced radiosensitivity in experimental tumours following erythropoietin treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia. Br J Cancer 78:752–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Thomas GM (2002) Raising hemoglobin: an opportunity for increasing survival? Oncology 63(Suppl 2):19–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Thomas M, Laurent K, Damien W, Anne-Marie K, Pierre-Yves D (2002) Cytomegalovirus colitis – a severe complication after standard chemotherapy. Acta Oncologica 41:704–706Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Titlestad K, Georgsen J, Jorgensen J, Kristensen T (2001) Monitoring transfusion practices at two university hospitals. Vox Sanguinis 80:40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Vadhan-Raj S, Verschraegen CF, Bueso-Ramos C, Broxmeyer HE, Kudelka AP, Freedman RS et al (2000) Recombinant human thrombopoietin attenuates carboplatin-induced severe thrombocytopenia and the need for platelet transfusions in patients with gynecologic cancer. Ann Intern Med 132:364–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Vamvakas EC (1995) Perioperative blood transfusion and cancer recurrence: meta-analysis for explanation. Transfusion 35:760–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Vamvakas EC, Carven JH, Hibberd PL (1996) Blood transfusion and infection after colorectal cancer surgery. Transfusion 36:1000–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Vamvakas EC, Pineda AA (1997) Determinants of the efficacy of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions: a meta-analysis. J Clin Apheresis 12:74–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Vamvakas E, Blajchman M (2009) Transfusion-related mortality: the ongoing risks of allogeneic blood transfusionand the available strategies for their prevention. Blood 113:3406–3417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    van de Watering LM, Brand A, Houbiers JG, Klein Kranenbarg WM, Hermans J, van de Velde C (2001) Perioperative blood transfusions, with or without allogeneic leucocytes, relate to survival, not to cancer recurrence. Br J Surg 88:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    van Marwijk KM, van Prooijen HC, Moes M, Bosma-Stants I, Akkerman JW (1991) Use of leukocyte-depleted platelet concentrates for the prevention of refractoriness and primary HLA alloimmunization: a prospective, randomized trial. Blood 77:201–205Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Vansteenkiste J, Hedenus M, Gascon P., (2009) Darbepoetin alfa for treating chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with a baseline hemoglobin level < 10 g/dL versus > or = 10 g/dL: an exploratory analysis from a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. BMC Cancer 3(9):311–322Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Vincent JL, Angus DC, Artigas A, Kalil A, Basson BR, Jamal HH et al (2003) Effects of drotrecogin alfa (activated) on organ dysfunction in the PROWESS trial. Crit Care Med 31:834–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Viscoli C, Castagnola E (2002) Treatment of febrile neutropenia: what is new? Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:377–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Vogler WR, Winton EF (1977) A controlled study of the efficacy of granulocyte transfusions in patients with neutropenia. Am J Med 63:548–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Wandt H, Ehninger G, Gallmeier WM (2001) New strategies for prophylactic platelet transfusion in patients with hematologic diseases. Oncologist 6:446–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Wandt H, Frank M, Ehninger G, Schneider C, Brack N, Daoud A et al (1998) Safety and cost effectiveness of a 10 + 109/L trigger for prophylactic platelet transfusions compared with the traditional 20 + 109/L trigger: a prospective comparative trial in 105 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 91:3601–3606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Warde P, O’Sullivan B, Bristow RG, Panzarella T, Keane TJ, Gullane PJ et al (1998) T1/T2 glottic cancer managed by external beam radiotherapy: the influence of pretreatment hemoglobin on local control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P, Pillay SS, Carl P, Novak I et al (2001) Caring for the critically ill patient. High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 286:1869–1878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Weiden PL, Zuckerman N, Hansen JA, Sale GE, Remlinger K, Beck TM et al (1981) Fatal graft-versus-host disease in a patient with lymphoblastic leukemia following normal granulocyte transfusion. Blood 57:328–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Weiss MJ (2003) New insights into erythropoietin and epoetin alfa: mechanisms of action, target tissues, and clinical applications. Oncologist 8(Suppl 3):18–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wells AW, Mounter PJ, Chapman CE, Stainsby D, Wallis JP (2002) Where does blood go? Prospective observational study of red cell transfusion in north England. BMJ 325:803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Williamson LM, Lowe S, Love EM, Cohen H, Soldan K, McClelland DB L et al (1999) Serious hazards of transfusion (SHOT) initiative: analysis of the first two annual reports. BMJ 319:16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Wingard JR, Chen DY, Burns WH, Fuller DJ, Braine HG, Yeager AM et al (1988) Cytomegalovirus infection after autologous bone marrow transplantation with comparison to infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 71:1432–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Winslow RM (2002) Blood substitutes. Curr Opin Hematol 9:146–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Winston DJ, Ho WG, Gale RP (1982) Therapeutic granulocyte transfusions for documented infections. A controlled trial in ninety-five infectious granulocytopenic episodes. Ann Intern Med 97:509–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wright DG, Robichaud KJ, Pizzo PA, Deisseroth AB (1981) Lethal pulmonary reactions associated with the combined use of amphotericin B and leukocyte transfusions. N Engl J Med 304:1185–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Wun T, Law L, Harvey D, Sieracki B, Scudder SA, Ryu JK (2003) Increased incidence of symptomatic venous thrombosis in patients with cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemotherapy, radiation, and erythropoietin. Cancer 98:1514–1520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Yomtovian R, Abramson J, Quie P, McCullough J (1981) Granulocyte transfusion therapy in chronic granulomatous disease. Report of a patient and review of the literature. Transfusion 21:739–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Yomtovian R, Gernsheimer T, Assmann SF, Mohandas K, Lee TH, Kalish LA et al (2001) WBC reduction in RBC concentrates by prestorage filtration: multicenter experience. Transfusion 41:1030–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Zangari M, Anaissie E, Barlogie B, Badros A, Desikan R, Gopal AV et al (2001) Increased risk of deep-vein thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma receiving thalidomide and chemotherapy. Blood 98:1614–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Zangari M, Barlogie B, Anaissie E, Saghafifar F, Eddlemon P, Jacobson J et al (2004) Deep vein thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide and chemotherapy: effects of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation. Br J Haematol 126:715–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Zeigler ZR, Shadduck RK, Gryn JF, Rintels PB, George JN, Besa EC et al (2001) Cryoprecipitate poor plasma does not improve early response in primary adult thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). J Clin Apheresis 16:19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Zheng XL, Kaufman RM, Goodnough LT, Sadler JE (2004) Effect of plasma exchange on plasma ADAMTS13 metalloprotease activity, inhibitor level, and clinical outcome in patients with idiopathic and nonidiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 103:4043–4049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Zimmermann R, Buscher M, Linhardt C, Handtrack D, Zingsem J, Weisbach V et al (1997) A survey of blood component use in a German university hospital. Transfusion 37:1075–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCSD Transfusion Services and Stem Cell Processing Lab, Moores UCSD Cancer CenterLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations