The Epidemiological Surveillance of Highly Pathogenic Diseases in Kazakhstan
The Central Asian deserts’ plague focus occupies vast zones of desert and semidesert in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The differentiation of plague strains on virulence from the plague foci of Kazakhstan testifies to its high epidemic virulence. From 1990–2003, 23 cases of human plague were registered. From 2004 to 2007, no cases human plague were registered. The growth of human plague has been caused not only by an increase in epizootic activity of the natural foci but also by the crises of social, economic, and health protection conditions in the Republic of Kazakhstan during the period of Perestroika. The same conditions challenged the increase in human anthrax, tularaemia, and brucellosis during the same period. Annually, 70,000–100,000 people are vaccinated and revaccinated with live vaccine strain tularemia. Kazakhstan is not endemic for cholera; therefore, all initial cases of cholera were imported from places such as Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkey, and Indonesia. For epidemiologic supervision of anthrax, the cadastre of anthrax foci is transferred in electronic format using a Geographical Information System (GIS). For Kazakh samples, 12 unique MLVA subtypes (KZ-1 through KZ-12) were used.
KeywordsBacillus Anthracis Epidemiological Surveillance Yersinia Pestis Francisella Tularensis Pathogenic Disease
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