ENSO Impact on Vegetation

  • Felix KoganEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security book series (NAPSC)


This paper examines the 1981–1997 association between monthly SST anomalies in the 3.4 tropical Pacific and vegetation health (VH) indices for every 16 km2 pixel of the world. The VH indices are represented by the Vegetation ­condition (VCI), Temperature condition (TCI), and Vegetation Health (VHI) indices. VCI determines moisture conditions, TCI – thermal conditions and VHI – the total ­vegetation health. Two types of responses were identified for boreal winter: ecosystems of northern South America, southern Africa, and Southeast Asia experienced severe moisture and thermal stress during El Niño and favorable conditions during La Niña years. In Argentina and the Horn of Africa the response was opposite. One of the most interesting results this paper shows are related to an advanced warnings of ENSO impacts. The eastern Brazil is sensitive to ENSO as early as in the spring (March–May) of the year the ENSO is starting its development.


Land ecosystems Vegetation Health Drought El Niño La Niña AVHRR data Lag correlation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Application and Research (STAR)WashingtonUSA

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