Advertisement

Japan: Vents and Seeps in Close Proximity

  • Hiromi Watanabe
  • Katsunori Fujikura
  • Shigeaki Kojima
  • Jun-Ichi Miyazaki
  • Yoshihiro Fujiwara
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 33)

Abstract

Since the discovery of dense animal communities associated with deep-sea hydrothermal­ venting (Lonsdale 1997), biological knowledge of those animals has accumulated (Van Dover 2000). Some unique animals associated with vent fields were found to depend on chemosynthetic primary production (Corliss et al. 1979). Subsequently, similar chemosynthetic animal assemblages were also discovered associated with ­deep-sea methane-seep areas, whale falls, and sunken wood (Paull et al. 1984; Smith et al. 1989). To understand the pathways of adaptation to these environments, species shared between different habitats are of particular interest (Distel et al. 2000; Lorion et al. 2008). On a global scale, the number of species shared between vents and seeps is less than 10% of the total recorded vent or seep species (e.g. Tunnicliffe et al. 1998, 2003; Sibuet and Olu 1998). In the vent and seep communities around Japan, however, this figure exceeds 20% (based on a faunal list provided by Fujikura et al. 2008), although the identification of species is still in progress. This relatively high abundance of both vent- and seep-inhabiting species suggests close relationships between vent and seep communities around Japan. A high similarity between megafaunal communities at vents and seeps around Japan was already noted by Fujikura et al. (1995); however, that study was based on species abundances investigated at only a single vent and two methane-seep communities. To date, at least 55 vent and seep communities have been discovered around Japan (Fujikura et al. 2008), and further analyses are required to elucidate the nature of this similarity.

Keywords

Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Vent Nankai Trough Japan Trench Methane Seep 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We appreciate Drs. Motohiro Shimanaga and Dhugal J. Lindsay for their useful advices on analyzing similarities among vent and seep communities. We also thank the three reviewers and the editor Dr. Steffen Kiel, who gave us helpful comments to improve this paper.

References

  1. Ashi J (2003) Characteristics of Nankai Trough and origin of seeping water. Kaiyo Mon ­35:296–300 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. Barry JP, Buck KR, Kochevar RK et al (2002) Methane-based symbiosis in a mussel, Bathymodiolus platifrons, from cold seeps in Sagami Bay, Japan. Invertebr Biol 121:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in Marine Communities: an approach to statistical ­analysis and interpretation, 2nd edn. PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Clement M, Posada D, Crandall KA (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene ­genealogies. Mol Ecol 9:1657–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colwell F, Matsumoto R, Reed D (2004) Review of the gas hydrates, geology, and biology of the Nankai Trough. Chem Geol 205:391–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Corliss JB, Dymond J, Gordon LI et al (1979) Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift. Science 203:1073–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Distel DL, Baco AR, Chuang E et al (2000) Do mussels take wooden steps to deep-sea vents? Nature 403:725–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin ver. 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform (Online) 1:47–50Google Scholar
  9. Fujikura K, Hashimoto J, Fujiwara Y et al (1995) Community ecology of the chemosynthetic community at Off Hatsushima site, Sagami Bay, Japan. JAMSTEC Deep Sea Res 11:227–241 (in Japanese with English figure captions)Google Scholar
  10. Fujikura K, Kojima S, Tamaki K et al (1999) The deepest chemosynthesis-based community yet ­discovered from the hadal zone, 7326 m deep, in the Japan Trench. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 190:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fujikura K, Kojima S, Fujiwara Y et al (2000) New distribution records of vesicomyid bivalves from deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities in Japanese waters. Venus 59:103–121Google Scholar
  12. Fujikura K, Fujiwara Y, Ishibashi J et al (2001) Report on investigation of hydrothermal vent ecosystems by the crewed submersible ‘Shinkai 2000’ on the Dai-yon (No. 4) Yonaguni Knoll and the Hatoma Knoll, the Okinawa Trough. JAMSTEC Deep Sea Res 19:141–154 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)Google Scholar
  13. Fujikura K, Hashimoto J, Okutani T (2002) Estimated population densities of megafauna in two chemosynthesis-based communities: a cold seep in Sagami Bay and a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. Benthos Res 57:21–30Google Scholar
  14. Fujikura K, Aoki M, Fujiwara Y et al (2003) Report on investigation of vent and methane seep ecosystems by the crewed submersible ‘Shinkai 2000’ and the ROV ‘Dolphin 3K’ on the Hatoma and the Kuroshima Knolls, the Nansei-shoto area. JAMSTEC Deep Sea Res 22:21–30 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)Google Scholar
  15. Fujikura K, Amaki K, Barry J et al (2007) Long-term in situ monitoring of spawning behavior and fecundity in Calyptogena spp. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fujikura K, Okutani T, Maruyama T (eds) (2008) Deep-sea life – biological observations using research submersibles. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan (in Japanese with English figure captions)Google Scholar
  17. Fujiwara Y, Tsukahara J, Hashimoto J et al (1998) In situ spawning of a deep-sea vesicomyid clam: evidence for environmental cue. Deep Sea Res I 45:1881–1889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fujiwara Y, Takai K, Uematsu K et al (2000) Phylogenetic characterization of endosymbionts in three hydrothermal vent mussels: influence on host distributions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 208:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fujiwara Y, Kato C, Masui N et al (2001) Dual symbiosis in the cold-seep thyasirid clam Maorithyas hadalis from the hadal zone in the Japan Trench, western Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 214:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fujiwara Y, Kawato M, Yamamoto T et al (2007) Three-year investigations into sperm whale-fall ecosystems in Japan. Mar Ecol 28:219–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glasby GP, Notsu K (2003) Submarine hydrothermal mineralization in the Okinawa Trough, SW of Japan: an overview. Ore Geol Rev 23:299–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goffredi SK, Hurtado LA, Hallam SJ, Vrijenhoek RC (2003) Evolutionary relationships of­ ­deep-sea vent and cold seep clams (Mollusca: Vesicomyidae) of the “pacifica/lepta” species complex. Mar Biol 142:311–320Google Scholar
  23. Hashimoto J, Ohta S, Tanaka T et al (1989) Deep-sea communities dominated by the giant clam, Calyptogena soyoae, along the slope foot of Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay, Central Japan. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 71:179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hashimoto J, Fujikura K, Miura T et al (1993) Discovery of vestimentiferan tube-worms in the euphotic zone. Proc JAMSTEC Symp Deep Sea Res 9:321–326Google Scholar
  25. Hashimoto J, Ohta S, Fujikura K et al (1995) Life habit of vesicomyid clam, Calyptogena soyoae, and hydrogen sulfide concentration in interstitial waters in Sagami Bay, Japan. J Oceanogr 51:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ishibashi J, Urabe T (1994) Hydrothermal activity related to arc-backarc magmatism in the Western Pacific. In: Taylor B (ed) Backarc basins, tectonics and magmatism. Plenum, New York/London, pp 451–495Google Scholar
  27. Iwasaki H, Kyuno A, Shintaku M et al (2006) Evolutionary relationships of deep-sea mussels inferred by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mar Biol 149:1111–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Juniper K, Sibuet M (1987) Cold seep benthic communities in Japan subduction zones: spatial organization, trophic strategies and evidence for temporal evolution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 40:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kiel S, Goedert JL (2006) Deep-sea food bonanzas: early Cenozoic whale-fall communities resemble wood-fall rather than seep communities. Proc R Soc B 273:2625–2631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kojima S (2002) Deep-sea chemoautosynthesis-based communities in the Northwestern Pacific. J Oceanogr 58:343–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kojima S, Ohta S (1997) Calyptogena okutanii n. sp. a sibling species of Calyptogena soyoae Okutani, 1957 (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae). Venus 56:189–195Google Scholar
  32. Kojima S, Ohta S, Yamamoto T et al (2001) Molecular taxonomy of vestimentiferans of the western Pacific and their phylogenetic relationship to species of the eastern Pacific. I. Family Lamellibrachiidae. Mar Biol 139:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kojima S, Ohta S, Yamamoto T et al (2002) Molecular taxonomy of vestimentiferans of the ­western Pacific and their phylogenetic relationship to species of the eastern Pacific II. Families Escarpiidae and Arcovestiidae. Mar Biol 141:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kojima S, Fujikura K, Okutani T (2005) Genetic differentiation of two vesicomyid bivalves, Calyptogena okutanii and Calyptogena nankaiensis, between seep areas off the central Honshu and hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough. Venus 64:45–53Google Scholar
  35. Kojima S, Tsuchida E, Numanami H et al (2006) Synonymy of Calyptogena solidissima with Calyptogena kawamurai (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) and its population structure revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Zool Sci 23:835–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuwahara H, Yoshida T, Takaki Y et al (2007) Reduced genome of the thioautotrophic ­intracellular symbiont in a deep-sea clam, Calyptogena okutanii. Curr Biol 17:881–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kyuno A, Shintaku M, Fujita Y et al (2009) Dispersal and differentiation of deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus (Mytilidae, Bathymodiolinae). J Mar Biol Article ID 625672, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  38. Lallemand SE, Glaçon G, Lauriat-Rage A et al (1992) Seafloor manifestations of fluid seepage at the top of a 2000-metre-deep ridge in the eastern Nankai accretionary wedge: long-lived ­venting and tectonic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 109:333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lonsdale P (1977) Clustering of suspension-feeding macrobenthos near abyssal hydrothermal vents at oceanic spreading centers. Deep Sea Res 24:857–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lorion J, Duperron S, Gros O et al (2008) Several deep-sea mussels and their ­associated symbionts are able to live both on wood and on whale falls. Proc R Soc B 276:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Matsumoto R, Okuda Y, Hiruta A et al (2009) Formation and collapse of gas hydrate deposits in high methane flux area of the Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea. J Geogr 118:43–71 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miyazaki J, Shintaku M, Kyuno A et al (2004) Phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia: Mytiidae). Mar Biol 144:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mizota C, Yamanaka T (2003) Strategic adaptation of a deep-sea, chemosynthesis-based animal community: an evaluation based on soft body part carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic ­signatures. Jpn J Benthol 58:56–59 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)Google Scholar
  45. Munroe TA, Hashimoto J (2008) A new western Pacific tonguefish (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae): the first pleuronectiform discovered at active hydrothermal vents. Zootaxa 1839:43–59Google Scholar
  46. Ogawa Y, Fujioka K, Fujikura K et al (1996) En echelon patterns of Calyptogena colonies in the Japan Trench. Geology 24:807–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ohta S, Kim DS (2001) Submersible observations of the hydrothermal vent communities on the Iheya Ridge, Mid Okinawa Trough. Jpn J Oceanogr 57:663–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ohta S, Laubier L (1987) Deep biological communities in the subduction zone of Japan from ­bottom photographs taken during “Nautile” dives in the Kaiko project. Earth Planet Sci Lett 83:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Okutani T, Egawa K (1985) The first underwater observation on living habitat and thanatocenoses of Calyptogena soyoae in bathyal depth of Sagami Bay. Venus 44:285–289Google Scholar
  50. Paull CK, Hecker B, Commeau R et al (1984) Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa. Science 226:965–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sakai H, Gamo T, Kim ES et al (1990) Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in Mid-Okinawa Trough backarc basin. Science 248:1093–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sibuet M, Olu K (1998) Biogeography, biodiversity and fluid dependence of deep-sea cold-seep communities at active and passive margins. Deep Sea Res II 45:517–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sibuet M, Juniper K, Pautot G (1988) Cold-seep benthic communities in the Japan subduction zones: geological control of community development. J Mar Res 46:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith CR, Kukert H, Wheatcroft RA et al (1989) Vent fauna on whale remains. Science 341:27–28Google Scholar
  55. Tokuda G, Yamada A, Nakano K et al (2006) Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp. Biol Lett 2:257–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tsunogai U, Ishibashi J, Wakita H et al (1994) Source of “cold seepage” at the off Hatsushima Island, Sagami Bay: a preliminary report of the Dive 721 of “Shinkai 2000”. JAMSTEC ­Deep Sea Res 10:395–403 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)Google Scholar
  57. Tunnicliffe V, Fowler MR (1996) Influence of sea-floor spreading on the global hydrothermal vent fauna. Nature 379:531–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tunnicliffe V, McArthur AG, McHugh D (1998) A biological perspective of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. Adv Mar Biol 34:353–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tunnicliffe V, Juniper K, Sibuet M (2003) Reducing environments of the deep-sea floor. In: Tyler PA (ed) Ecosystems of the deep oceans, vol 28, Ecosystems of the world. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 81–110Google Scholar
  60. Van Dover CL (2000) The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, p 424Google Scholar
  61. Watanabe H, Tsuchida S, Fujikura K et al (2005) Population history associated with hydrothermal vent activity inferred from genetic structure of neoverrucid barnacles around Japan. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 288:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Watanabe H, Kado R, Kaida M et al (2006) Dispersal of vent-barnacle (genus Neoverruca) in the Western Pacific. Cah Biol Mar 47:353–357Google Scholar
  63. Yamanaka T, Ishibashi J, Hashimoto J (2000) Organic geochemistry of hydrothermal petroleum generated in the submarine Wakamiko caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. Org Geochem 31:1117–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiromi Watanabe
    • 1
  • Katsunori Fujikura
    • 1
  • Shigeaki Kojima
    • 2
  • Jun-Ichi Miyazaki
    • 3
  • Yoshihiro Fujiwara
    • 1
  1. 1.Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokosukaJapan
  2. 2.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteUniversity of TokyoChibaJapan
  3. 3.Yamanashi UniversityKofuJapan

Personalised recommendations