Advertisement

Delamination Detection – A Vibration-Based Approach

  • Voichita Bucur
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter we shall describe the aspects related to delamination in composites revealed by a vibration-based approach and related to the local and global damage detection. The local damage detection is performed with an ultrasonic technique, with Lamb waves, while the global damage detection is based on a model – based method using low frequency vibrations and undertaking the analysis of structural models implemented by finite element analysis. In this chapter the delamination detection studies are commented in the context of structural health monitoring, which is referred as the process of implementing a damage detection strategy for mechanical engineering infrastructures or for other purposes.

Keywords

Damage Detection Structural Health Monitoring Lamb Wave Nonlinear Dynamic Response Delamination Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abhyankar NS, Hall EK, Hanagud S (1993) Chaotic vibrations of beams: Numerical solution of partial differential equations. Trans ASME J Appl Mech 60, March:167–174Google Scholar
  2. Adams RD, Cawley P, Pye CJ, Stone BJ (1978) A vibration technique for non-destructively assessing the integrity of structures. J Mech Eng Sci 20:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alleyne DN and Cawley P (1992) The interaction of Lamb waves with defects. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 39:381–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allix O, Blanchard L (2006) Mesomodeling of delamination: towards industrial applications. Compos Sci Technol 66:731–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Auld BA (1980) Acoustic field and waves in solids. vol 1. Krieger, Malabar, FL.Google Scholar
  6. Beadle BM, Hurelaus S, Jacobs LJ, Gaul L (2005) Detection and localization of small notches in plates using Lamb waves. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference. (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 96Google Scholar
  7. Berthelot JM, Sefrani Y (2004) Damping analysis of unidirectional glass and Kevlar fibre composite. Compos Sci Technol 64:1261–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borst R de, Remmers JJC (2006) Computational modelling of delamination. Compos Sci Technol 66:713–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandinelli L, Massabo R (2002) Free vibrations of through – thickness reinforced delaminated beams. 15th ASCE engineering mechanics conference – EM 2002, June 2–5, Columbia University:1–8Google Scholar
  10. Bunsell AR (ed) (1988) Quality and damage control in composite materials. Elsevier Applied Science Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Caron JF, Diaz Diaz A, Carreira RP, Chabot A, Ehrlacher A (2006) Multi- particle modelling for the prediction of delamination in multi-layered materials. Compos Sci Technol 66:755–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cassereau D, Fink M (1992) Time reversal ultrasonic field. Part III. Theory of the closed time reversal cavity. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 39:579–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castro E, Garcia-Hernandez MT, Gallego A (2007) Defect identification in rods subject to forced vibrations using the spatial wavelet transform. Appl Acoust 68(6):699–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cawley P (1990) Low frequency NDT techniques for the detection of disbands and delaminations. Br J Non-Destr Test. 32:454–461Google Scholar
  15. Cawley P, Adams RD (1987) Vibration techniques of NDT. In Summerscales J (ed) Nondestructive testing of fibre – reinforced plastics composites, Elsevier, London, pp 151–200.Google Scholar
  16. Cawley P, Adams RD (1979) The location of defects in structures from measurements of natural frequencies. J Strain Anal 14, 2:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cawley P, Alleyne D (1996) The use of Lamb waves for the long range inspection of large structures. Ultrasonics 34:287–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chattopadhyay A, Dragomir-Daescu D, Gu H (1999) Dynamics of delaminated smart composite cross – ply beams. Smart Mater Struct 8:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chimenti DE (ed) (1981–2006) Review of progress quantitative nondestructive evaluation. Plenum Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  20. Chimenti DE, Martin RW (1991) Nondestructive evaluation of composite laminates by leaky Lamb waves. Ultrasonics 29:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chrysochoidis NA, Saravanos DA (2004) Assessing the effects of delamination on the damped dynamic response of composite beams with piezoelectric actuators and sensors. Smart Mater Struct 13:733–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coutellier D, Walrick JC, Geoffroy P (2006) Presentation of a methodology for delamination detection within laminated structures. Compos Sci Technol 66:837–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. D’Ambrogio W, Fregolent A (2000) The use of antiresonances for robust model updating. J Sound Vibr 236:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Della C N, Shu D (2005) Free vibration analysis of composite beams with overlapping delaminations. Eur J Mech A Solids 24:491–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delsanto PP, Scalerandi M (1998) A spring model for the simulation of the propagation ultrasonic pulses through imperfect contact interfaces. J Acoust Soc Am 104:2584–2591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Delsanto PP, Romano A, Scalerandi M, Moldoveanu F (1998) A genetic algorithm approach to ultrasonic tomography. J Acoust Soc Am 104:1374–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deschamps M, Hosten B (1992) The effects of viscoelasticity on the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves by an orthotropic plate. J Acoust Soc Am 91:2007–2015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doebling SW, Farrar CR, Prime MB (1998) A summary review of vibration – based damage identification methods. Shock Vibr Dig 30, 2:91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doebling SW, Hermez FM, Peterson LD, Farhat C (1997) Improved damage location accuracy using strain energy based mode selection criteria. AIAA J 35(4):639–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fink M (1992) Time reversal of ultrasonic field- Basic principles. Part 1. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 39:555–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fink M (1997) Time reversed acoustics. Physics Today 20:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Friswell MI (2007) Damage identification using inverse methods. Phil Trans R Soc A 365:393–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fritzen CP, Mengelkamp G (2005) In situ damage detection and localization in stiffened structures. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 268Google Scholar
  34. Gammadi LNB, Hanagud S (1995) Vibration characteristics of beams with multiple delaminations. Proceedings of the 36 AIAA/ASME/ASCE/ASC Structures, structural dynamics and materials conference – adaptive structures forum, New Orleans , LA, pp 140–150Google Scholar
  35. Ghoshal A, Kim HS, Chattopadhyay A, Prosser WH (2005) Effect of delamination on transient history of smart composite plates. Finite Elem Anal Des 41(9–10) :850–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giurgiutiu V, Buli X, Cuc A (2005) Dual use of travelling and standing Lamb waves for structural health monitoring. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 361Google Scholar
  37. Green RE Jr (Ed) (1985–2006) Nondestructive characterization of materials. Vol. 1– Vol. IXV, Plenum Press, New York, NY; Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  38. Gummadi LNB, Hanagud S (1995) Vibration characteristics of beams with multiple delaminations. Proceedings of the 36th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC – structures, structural dynamics and materials conference. New Orleans, LA, pp 140–150Google Scholar
  39. Hanagud S, Luo H (1994) Modal analysis of a delaminated beam. Proceedings of the 10th international. conference experimental. mechanics, Lisabon, June 18–22, pp 880–888Google Scholar
  40. Hanagud S, Luo H (1997) Damage detection and health monitoring based on structural dynamics. Structural health monitoring: current status and perspectives proceedings of international workshop on structural health monitoring, pp 715–726.Google Scholar
  41. Hanagud S, Nagesh Babu GL, Roglin RL, Savanur SG (1992) Active control of delaminations in composite structures. Proceedings of .33rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC SDM conference, pp 1819–1829Google Scholar
  42. Hanagud S, Nagesh Babu GL, Won CC (1990) Delamination in smart composite structures. Proceedings of the 1990 SEM spring conference on experimental mechanics, Bethel, CT, Soc Exp Mech Inc:776–781Google Scholar
  43. Hayashi T, Kawashima K (2002) Multiple reflections of Lamb waves at a delamination. Ultrasonics 40:193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hera A, Shinde A, Hou Z (2005) Issues in tracking instantaneous modal parameters for structural health monitoring using wavelet approach. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference. (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 338Google Scholar
  45. Hirsekorn S (2001) Nonlinear transfer of ultrasound by adhesive joints – a theoretical description. Ultrasonics 39:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hosten B, Deschamps M, Tittmann BR (1987) Inhomogeneous wave generation and propagation in lossy anisotropic solids. Application to characterization of viscoelastic composite materials. J.A.S.A.M. 82:1763–1770Google Scholar
  47. Huber RD, Mignogna RB, Simmonds KE, Schechter RS, Delsanto PP (1997) Dynamic full – field visualization of uktrasound interacting with material defects : Experiments and simulation. Ultrasonics 35:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kazys R, Svilainis L (1997) Ultrasonic detection and characterization of delaminations in thin composite plates using signal processing techniques. Ultrasonics 35:367–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kessler SS, Spearing SM, Atalla MJ (2002a) In situ damage detection of composite structures using Lamb waves methods. Proceedings of the1st european workshop on structural health monitoring, pp 374–381Google Scholar
  50. Kessler SS, Spearing SM, Atalla MJ, Cesnik CES, Soutis C (2002b) Damage detection in composite materials using frequency response methods. Compos:Part B 33:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim Y, Davalos JE, Barbero EJ (1997) Delamination buckling of FRP layer in laminated wood beams. Compos Struct 37(3/4):311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Konstantinidis G, Wilcox P, Drinkwater B (2005) Damage detection using a distributed array of guided wave sensors. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 265Google Scholar
  53. Krohn N, Stoessel R, Busse G (2002) Acoustic non – linearity for defect selective imaging. Ultrasonics 40:633–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kundu T, Maji A, Ghosh T, Maslov K (1998) Detection of kissing bonds by Lamb waves. Ultrasonics 35:573–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ladevèze P, Lubineau G, Marsal D (2006) Towards a bridge between the micro – and mesomechanics of delamination for laminated composites. Compos Sci Technol 66:698–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lavrentyev A, Rokhlin S (1998) Ultrasonic study of environmental damage initiation and evolution in adhesive joints. RNDE-Research in Nondestructive Evaluation 10, 1, 26 pagesGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee S, Park T, Voyiadjis GZ (2003) Vibration analysis of multi – delaminated beams. Compos Part B:Eng 34:647–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lestari W, Hanagud S (1999) Health monitoring of structures: Multiple delamination dynamics in composite beams. Proceedings of the 40th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS structures, structural dynamics and materials conferenceGoogle Scholar
  59. Lestari W, Hanagud S (2001) Nonlinear vibration of buckled beams: Some exact solutions. Int J Solids Struct 38:4741–4757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lestari W, Qiao P, Hanagud S (2007) Curvature mode shape-based damage assessment of carbon/epoxy composite beams. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 18(March):189–208Google Scholar
  61. Lu X, Lestari W, Hanagud S (2001) Nonlinear vibrations of a delaminated beam. J Vibr Control 7:803–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lucero J, Taha MMR (2005) A wavelet aided fuzzy damage detection algorithm for structural health monitoring. Proceedings of the 23rd international. modal analysis conference. (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 78Google Scholar
  63. Luo H, Hanagud S (1996) Delamination modes in composite plates. J Aerospace Eng 9(4):106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Luo H, Hanagud S (1997a) An integrated equation for changes with structural dynamics of damaged structure. Int J Solids Struct, December:4557–4579Google Scholar
  65. Luo H, Hanagud S (1997b) Dynamic learning rate neural network training and composite structural damage detection. AIAA J 35:1522–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Luo H, Hanagud S (1997c) Delaminated beam nonlinear dynamic response calculation and visualisation. Proceedings of the 38th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS SDM Conference 1:490–499Google Scholar
  67. Luo H, Hanagud S (2000) Dynamics of delaminated beams. Int J Solids Struct 37(10):1501–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maslov K, Kundu T (1997) Selection of Lamb modes for detecting internal defects in composite laminates. Ultrasonics 35:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Messina A, Williams EJ, Contursi T (1998) Structural damage detection by a sensitivity and statistical based method. J Sound Vibr 216:791–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Montalvao D, Maia NMM, Ribeiro AMR (2006) A review if vibration – based structural health monitoring with special emphasis on composite materials (2006) Shocks Vib Dig 38(4):1–6Google Scholar
  71. Nagesh Babu GL, Hanagud S (1990) Delamination in smart structures – A parametric study on vibration. Proceedings of the 31st AIAA/ASME/ASCE/ AHS SDM Conference, pp 2417–2426Google Scholar
  72. Nagy P (1992) Ultrasonic classification of imperfect interfaces. J Nondestr Eval 11:127–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nayfeh AH, Chimenti DE (1988) Ultrasonic wave reflection from liquid – coupled orthotropic plates with application to fibrous composites. J Appl Mech 55:863–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nayfeh AH, Chin C, Nayfeh SA (1995) Nonlinear normal modes of a cantilever beam. J Vib Acoust 177:477–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nieuwenhuis JH, Neumann JJ, Greve DW, Oppenheimer IJ (2005) Simulation and testing for Lamb wave generation. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal Analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 216Google Scholar
  76. Ogilvy JA (1995) A model for the ultrasonic inspection of composite plates. Ultrasonics 33:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pandey AK, Biswas M, Samman MM (1991) Damage detection from changes in curvature mode shapes. J Sound Vibr 145:321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Paolozzi A, Peroni I (1990) Detecting of debonding damage in composite plates through natural frequency vibrations. J Reinforced Plastics Compos 9:369–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Perel VY (2006) A new approach for dynamic analysis of composite beam with an interplay crack. Nonlinear Dyn Syst Theory 6(2):171–186Google Scholar
  80. Petyt M (1990) Introduction to finite element vibration analysis. Cambridge University Press. UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pilarski A, Rose JL (1987) A transverse – wave ultrasonic oblique incidence technique for interfacial weakness detection in adhesive bonds. J Appl Phys 63:300–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Potel C, de Belleval JF (1993a) Propagation in an anisotropic periodically layered medium. J Acoust Soc Am 93:2669–2677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Potel C, de Belleval JF (1993b) Acoustic propagation in anisotropic periodically multilayered media: A method to solve numerical instabilities. J Appl Phys 74:2208–2215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Raghavan A, Cesnik CES (2005) Analytical models for Lamb waves based structural health monitoring. Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 289Google Scholar
  85. Rokhlin S (1979) Interaction of Lamb waves with elongated dalaminations in thin sheets. Int Adv Nondestr Test 6:263–285Google Scholar
  86. Rokhlin S (1980) Diffraction of Lamb waves by a finite crack in an elastic layer. JAcoust Soc Am 67:1157–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rokhlin SI, Wang YJ (1992) Analysis of boundary conditions for elastic waves. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91:1875–1887Google Scholar
  88. Rokhlin SI, Wang W (1989) Critical angle measurement of elastic constants in composite materials. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 86:1876–1882Google Scholar
  89. Rose JL, Pilarski A, Huang Y (1990) Surface wave utility in composite material characterization. Res Nondestruct Eval 1:247–265Google Scholar
  90. Royer D, Dieulesaint E (2000) Elastic waves in solids. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  91. Salawu OS (1997) Detection of structural damage through changes in frequency: A review. Eng Struct 19:718–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sampaio RPC, Maia NMM, Silva JMM (1999) Damage detection using the frequency response function curvature method. J Sound Vibr 226:1029–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saravanos DA, Birman V, Hopkins DA (1994) Detection of delaminations in composite beams using piezoelectric sensors. Proceedings of the 31th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC structures, structural dynamics and materials conference, pp 181–191Google Scholar
  94. Shen MMH, Grady JE (1992) Free vibrations of delaminated beams. AIAA J 30(5):1361–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shkerdin G, Glorieux C (2004) Lamb mode conversion in a plate with a delamination. J Acoust Soc Am 116:2089–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shkerdin G, Glorieux C (2005) Lamb mode conversion in an absorptive bi- layer with a delamination. J Acoust Soc Am 117:2253–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simonetti F (2004) Lamb wave propagation in elastic plates coated with viscoelastic materials. J Acoust Soc Am 115:2041–2053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singer L (1997) Bond strength measurements by ultrasonic guided waves. Ultrasonics 35:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sohn H, Farrar CR, Hemez FM, Shunk DD, Stinemates DW, Nadler BR (2003) A review of structural health monitoring literature : 1996–2001. Los Alamos National Laboratory Report, LA-13976 MSGoogle Scholar
  100. Sohn H, Park G, Wait JR, Lomback NP, Farrar CR (2004) Wavelet – based signal processing for detecting delamination in composite plates. Smart Mater Struct 13:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sohn H, Park H, Law KH, Farrar CR (2005) Instantaneous online monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles without baseline signals Proceedings of the 23rd international modal analysis conference (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 259Google Scholar
  102. Solodov IY, Krohn N, Busse G (2002) CAN: an example of nonclassical acoustic nonlinearity in solids. Ultrasonics 40:621–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sridharan S (Ed) (2008) Delamination behavior of composites. Woodhead Publlishing, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  104. Stoessel R, Krohn N, Pfleiderer K, Busse G (2002) Air-coupled ultrasound inspection of various materials. Ultrasonics 40:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Su Z, Ye L, Bu X (2002) Evaluation of delamination in laminated composites based on Lamb waves methods: FEM simulation and experimental verification. Proceedings of the 1st European workshop on structural health monitoring, pp 328–335Google Scholar
  106. Sundararaman S, Adams DE, Rigas EJ (2005) Characterizing damage in plates through beamforming with sensor arrays. Proceedings of the 23rd international. modal analysis conference. (IMAX XXIII), Paper no 249Google Scholar
  107. Tenek LH, Henneke EG II, Gunzburger MD (1993) Vibration of delaminated composite plates and some applications of nondestructive testing. Compos Struct 23:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Terrien N, Osmont D, Royer D, Lepoutre F, Déom A (2007) A combined finite element and modal decomposition method to study the interaction of Lamb modes with micro-defects. Ultrasonics 46:74–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Toyama N, Okabe T (2004) Effect of tensile strain and transverse cracks on Lamb wave velocity in cross – ply FRP laminates. J Mat Sci 39:7365–7367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tracy JJ, Pardoen GC (1989) Effect of delamination on the natural frequencies of composite laminates. J Comp Mat 23:1200–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tseng WY, Dugundji J (1971) Nonlinear vibrations of a buckled beam under harmonic excitation. J Appl Mech 38(6):467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vakakis AF (1996) Normal modes and localization in nonlinear systems. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wahl F, Schmidt G, Forrai L (1999) On the significance of antiresonance frequencies in experimental structural analysis. J Sound Vibr 219:379–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang BS, He ZC (2007) Crack detection of arch dam using statistical neural network based on the reductions of natural frequencies. J Sound Vibr 302:1037–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang JTS, Liu YY, Gibby JA (1982) Vibration of split beams. J Sound Vibr 84(4):491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang SS, Yu TP (2006) Nonlinear mechanics of delamination in fiber – composite laminates: asymptotic solutions and computational results. Compos Sci Technol 66:766–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wright WMD, Hutchins DA, Hayward G, Gachagan A (1996) Ultrasonic imaging using laser generation and piezoelectric air-coupled detection. Ultrasonics 34:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wu F, Thomas JL, Fink M (1992) Time reversal of ultrasonic fields Part II Experimental results IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 39:567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zou Y, Tong L, Steven GP (2000) Vibration – based model – dependent damage (delamination) identification and health monitoring for composite structures – a review. J Sound Vibr 230:357–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science and Engineering Div.CSIROClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations