Seismic Engineering of Monuments

  • T.P. Tassios
Part of the Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering book series (GGEE, volume 17)


In this contribution the particularities of the seismic re-design of Monuments are discussed, related to their structural repair or strengthening. A Monument, besides its possible practical use and its economical value, requires a lot of other Values to be respected during its aseismic retrofitting, such as its aesthetic Form, the authenticity of its materials, etc. In order to respect these Values, the Engineer tends to minimize structural intervention – thus, violating social values such as the preservation of the Monument for future generations, the protection of human lifes, etc. An optimization is needed, and this contribution attempts to describe the necessary procedures to this end. On the other hand, emphasis is given to the particular difficulties in the determination of the resistance of masonry, as well as in the selection of suitable methods of Analysis, taking into account the specificity of each Monument. To this end, the contribution includes comments on monumentic Values and performance requirements, and emphasizes the need for an institutionalization of levels of importance, levels of visitability and of acceptable damage-levels for all monuments of each Country, as a basic input of aseismic design of monuments. Subsequently, criteria are given for the selection of methods of Analysis, and detailed comments are included about experimental investigations and strengths’ determination. The final optimization procedure is then described, regarding the optimum seismic resistance level to be lent to a specific Monument.


Seismic Action Structural Intervention Compression Strength Seismic Load Masonry Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


References Related to Experimental Investigation

  1. Berra M, Binda L, Anti L, Fatticcioni A (1991) Non destructive evaluation of the efficacy of masonry strengthening by grouting techniques. Proceedings of the 9th International Brick/Block Masonry Conference, vol 3. Berlin, Germany, pp 1457–1463Google Scholar
  2. Binda L, Lenzi G, Saisi A (1998) NDE of masonry structures: use of radar tests for the characterization of stone masonries. NDT&E Int 31(6):411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Binda L, Modena C, Baronio G, Abbaneo S (1997) Repair and investigation techniques for stone masonry walls. Constr Build Mater 11(3):133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Binda L, Saisi A (2001) Non destructive testing applied to historic buildings: the case of some Sicilian Churches. In: Lourenço PB, Roca P (eds) Historical constructions. University of Minho, GuimarãesGoogle Scholar
  5. Binda L, Saisi A, Zanzi L (2003) Sonic tomography and flat-jack tests as complementary investigation procedures for the stone pillars of the temple of S. Nicolò l’ Arena (Italy). NDT&E Int 36:215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Côte Ph, Dérobert X, Miltiadou-Fezans A, Delinikolas N, Durand O, Alexandre J, Kalagri A, Savvidou M, Chryssopoulos D, Anamaterou L (2007) Application of non-destructive techniques at the Katholikon of Dafni Monastery for mapping the mosaics substrata and grouting monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on stuctural analysis of historical construction, vol II. Bath, UK, Jul 2008Google Scholar
  7. Côte Ph, Dérobert X, Miltiadou-Fezans A, Delinikolas N, Minos N (2004) Mosaic-grouting monitoring by ground-penetrating radar. SAHC2004: In: Proceedings of the 4th international seminar on structural analysis of historical constructions, Padova, Italy, Nov 2004Google Scholar
  8. Felicelti R, Gattesco N (1998) A penetration test to study the mechanical response of mortar in ancient masonry buildings. Mater Struct 31:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giuriani E, Gubana A (1991) A penetration test to evaluate wood decay and its application to Laggia monument. Mater Struct 26:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Macchi G, Ghelfi S (2006) Indagini strutturali. In: La Torse Restituita, vol III. Bolletino d’ Arte, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. Maierhofer C, Hamann M, Hennen C, Knupfer B, Marchisio M, da Porto F, Binda L, Zanzi L (2004) Structural evaluation of historic walls and columns in the Altes museum in Berlin using non-destructive testing methods. In: Modena C, Lourenço PB, Roca P (eds) Proceedings of the 4th international seminar on structural analysis of historical constructions, vol 1. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 331–341Google Scholar
  12. Maierhofer C, Köpp C, Wendrich A (2004) On-site investigation techniques for the structural evaluation of historic masonry buildings – a European research project. In: Modena C, Lourenço PB, Roca P (eds) Proceedings of the 4th international seminar on structural analysis of historical constructions, vol 1. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 313–320Google Scholar
  13. Tassios Th, Mamillan M (1985) Structural investigations of ancient monuments – Valutazione strutturale dei monumenti antichi. Ed. Kappa, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  14. Thomasen SE, Sears CL (1993) Historic preservation. High and low tech diagnostic technology. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Zurich, pp 91–98Google Scholar
  15. Silman R, Ennis M (1993) Non-destructive evaluation to document historic structures. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), Zurich, pp 195–203Google Scholar
  16. Van de Steen B, Van Balen K, Halleux L, Mertens R (1997) Nondestructive testing techniques applied for the investigation of a typical baroque church facade: the St-Michiels church in Leuven. Inspection and monitoring of the architectural heritage, international colloquium seriate, Italian group of IABSE, pp 177–185Google Scholar
  17. Wenzel F, Kahle M (1993) Indirect methods of investigation for evaluating historic masonry. International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE), Zurich, pp75–90Google Scholar

References on Analysis and Resistance

  1. Ambraseys N (2005, Dec) Earthquakes and archaeology. J Archaeol SciGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambraseys N, Srbulov M (1995) Earthquake induced displacements of slopes. Soil Dyn Earthquake Eng 14Google Scholar
  3. Binda L, Pina-Henriques J, Anzani A, Fontana A, Lourenço PB (2006) A contribution for the understanding of load-transfer mechanisms in multi-leaf masonry walls: testing and modelling. Eng Struct 28Google Scholar
  4. Giuffré A (1991) Letture sulla Meccanica delle Murature strutturali. Kappa, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  5. Miltiadou-Fezans A, Papakonstantinou E, Zambas K, Panou A, Frantzikinaki K (2005) Design and application of hydraulic grouts of high injectability for structural restoration of the column drums of the Parthenon Opisthodomos. In: Brebbia CA, Torpiano A (eds) Advances in Architecture 20, STREMHA IX “Structural studies, repairs and maintenance of architectural heritage”. WIT Press, Malta, pp 461–471Google Scholar
  6. Psilla N, Tassios TP (2008, Dec) Design models of reinforced masonry walls under monotonic and cyclic loading. Eng StructGoogle Scholar
  7. Tassios TP (1988) Meccanica delle Murature. Liguori Editore, NapoliGoogle Scholar
  8. Tassios TP (2004) Rehabilitation of 3-leaf masonry. In: Evoluzione nella sperimentazione per le costruzioni, Seminario Internationale (26 Sept–03 Oct), Centro Scientifico Internazionale di Aggiornamento Sperimentale-Scientifico (CIAS)Google Scholar
  9. Tassios TP, Chronopoulos M (1986) Aseismic dimensioning of interventions on low-strength masonry buildings. Middle East Mediterranean regional conference “Earthen and low strength masonry buildings”, AncaraGoogle Scholar
  10. Toumbakari EE (2003) Structural restoration of the architectural members of Parthenon Opisthodomos. In Proceedings of 5th international meeting for the restoration of the acropolis monuments, Athens, 4–6 Oct 2002, pp 149–160 (in greek)Google Scholar
  11. Valluzzi MR (2000) Comportamento meccanico di murature storiche consolidate con materiali e tecniche a base di calce. Doctor Thesis, University of TriesteGoogle Scholar
  12. Vintzileou E, Miltiadou A (2008) Mechanical properties of 3-leaf stone masonry grouted with ternary on hydraulic line-based grouts. Eng Struct 30Google Scholar
  13. Vintzileou E, Tassios TP (1995) Three leaf masonry strengthened by injecting cement grouts. J Struct Eng ASCE 5Google Scholar
  14. Vintzileou E (2009) The effect of timber ties on the behaviour of historic masonry. ASCE J Str Eng (accepted for publication)Google Scholar

References on Graeco–Roman Monuments

  1. Housner GW (1963) The behavior of inverted pendulum structure during earthquakes. Bull Seism Soc Am 53(2):403–417Google Scholar
  2. Konstantinidis D, Makris N (2005) Seismic Response analysis of multidrum classical columns. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 34:1243–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Makris, N. and D. Konstantinidis (2003) The rocking spectrum and the limitations of practical design methodologies. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 32:265–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Papantonopoulos C (1993) The “Articulated” structural system: studying the earthquake response of a classical temple. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on structural studies, repairs and maintenance of historical buildings, Bath, UKGoogle Scholar
  5. Psycharis IN, Papastamatiou DY, Alexandris Ap (2000) Parametric investigation of the stability of classical columns under harmonic and earthquake excitations. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 29:1093–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sinopoli A (1989) Dynamic analysis of a stone column excited by a sine wave ground motion. Appl Mech Rev 44(11):S246–S255Google Scholar

Guide Lines on Seismic Strengthening of Monuments

  1. Aplicación del Código Técnico de la Edificación a las obras de restauración arquitectrónica, Spain 2008Google Scholar
  2. Linee Guida per la valutazione e riduzione del rischio sismico del patrimonio culturale. Ministero per i Beni e le Attivitá Culturali, Gangemi Ed., Roma, 2007Google Scholar
  3. Recommendations for the Analysis and Restoration of Historical Structures, ISCARSAH/Icomos, 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations