Major Factors Controlling Earthquake Casualties as Revealed via a Diversified Questionnaire Survey in Ojiya City for the 2004 Mid-Niigata Earthquake

  • M. Koyama
  • S. Okada
  • Y. Ohta
Part of the Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research book series (NTHR, volume 29)


An extensive questionnaire survey on various seismic effects for inhabitants, dwellings, and social settings was conducted in an area of Ojiya city affected by the 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake. The investigation takes into consideration repeated aftershock effects; however, in this report we focus on injuries during the main shock event, which injured most victims. To obtain details about the causes of injuries, the relationships of the injuries were investigated using the following four dimensions: (1) the scale of dwelling damage grade by seismic intensity; (2) the dangers of weapons such as furniture overturned and/or fallen debris; (3) what type of injury is incurred and which body part is injured; and (4) variation of injury rate by household structure. Traditional injury mitigation strategies focusing on building damage are restated as anti-death strategies on the basis of these results. However, injury mitigation strategies are also important problems from a QOL (quality of life) point of view. Through this survey, various cross sections of the injury process become clear. The results indicate that a total risk control strategy including lifestyle is required for the life-loss reduction strategy. A continuous examination of this research would lead to the construction of a numerical estimation model for individual injury.


Injury Mechanism Strong Motion Injury Rate Seismic Intensity Building Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are indebted to Dr. Masahiro Sawada at Nagaoka Institute of Technology, the officers and inhabitants of Ojiya city for cooperation in collecting and recording data. We are also grateful to Dr. Nobuoto Nojima at Gifu University for environmental support.


  1. Miyano M, Sumiyoshi Y (1999) Study on sex difference in casualties due to the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. Rep Tono Res Inst Earthquake Sci 2:46–49Google Scholar
  2. Nachi N, Okada S (2007) Probabilistic seismic casualty models and simplified method to evaluate seismic casualty risk. J Struct Construct Eng Trans AIJ 616:97–104Google Scholar
  3. Nobuhara R, Miyano M (1996) Study of the age-group trait on the accidents in the daily life based on the ambulance activities in Suita city. Rep Sci Liv 44:35–48Google Scholar
  4. Ohta Y, Okazaki N (1998) For upgrading of prediction equations of earthquake casualty. Papers of the Annual Conference of the Institute of Social Safety Science 8:262–265Google Scholar
  5. Ohta Y, Koyama M, Nakagawa K (1998) Revision of algorithm for seismic intensity determination by questionnaire survey. High Intensity Range J Jpn Soc Nat Disaster Sci 16(4):307–323Google Scholar
  6. Okada S, Takai N (1999) Classifications of structural types and damage patterns of buildings for earthquake field investigation. J Struct Construct Eng Trans AIJ 524:65–72Google Scholar
  7. Okada S et al (2006) An intensive hearing investigation to households damaged in the 2004 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu earthquake. Rep Tono Res Inst Earthquake Sci 18:65–157Google Scholar
  8. Tabata N, Okada S (2006) Seismic death risk function for casualties per house. J Struct Construct Eng Trans AIJ 605:71–78Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science, Association for the Development of Earthquake PredictionMizunamiJapan

Personalised recommendations