Making Sense of Human–Environment Interaction: Policy Guidance Under Conditions of Imperfect Data

Chapter

Abstract

Changes in the policy and legal environment may support adaptive environmental management. The introductory chapter of this volume referred to this set of change as belonging to the institutional environment. We distinguished this set of change from institutional arrangements: access to markets, information, technology, financial resources, skilled staff with clear roles and responsibilities. The dispersion of institutional arrangements will most certainly differ across space – district, village or watershed. Process variables like connectivity to critical infrastructure such as roads, electricity or internet and motivated agency staff may mediate access to institutional arrangements. The chapter distinguishes between process variables and access to services like soil and water conserving techniques. Realisation of higher order service outcomes like delivery of affordable and reliable water services like soil conserving farming techniques, sustainable water sources or connection to a sewer network are very often mediated by market and state forces that support planning and technical development. Further, in many situations lack of socio-ecological data hampers planning and management interventions. This chapter grapples with some of these issues through an analysis of soil conservation interventions in Laos. In doing so, the chapter emphasises the importance of constitutional choice, collective choice and operational rules that we discussed in the first chapter of this volume.

Keywords

Technology Adoption Fallow Period Upland Rice Household Food Security Asian Development Bank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aree, J. Y., Meusch, E., Homsambath, K., & Feliciano, E. (2003). Women, water and household food security in selected Lao PDR communities. Chapter presented at the First South East Asia Water Forum, Empress Hotel, Chiang Mai, 17–21 November.Google Scholar
  2. Berkes, F. (2002). Cross-scale institutional linkages: perspectives from bottom up. In T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, E. Ostrom, & P. Stern (Eds.), The Drama of the Commons. Washington, DC: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  3. Biggs, S., & Smith, S. (2003). A paradox of learning in project cycle management and the role of organizational culture. World Development, 31(10), 1743–1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouahom, B., Sengtaheuanghoung, O., & Phanthaboun, K. (2004). Participatory upland development for sustainable agriculture in Lao P.D.R.: a comprehensive final report of the Asia land sloping lands. Project-5. Vientiane: National Agriculture Forestry Research Institute, 1 September 2001 to 31 December 2004.Google Scholar
  5. Bricquet, J. P., Boosaner, A., Bouahom, B., & Toan, T. D. (2003). Statistical analysis of long-term series rainfall data: A regional study in south east Asia. Proceedings of the IWMI-ADB Project Annual Meeting and 7th MSEC Assembly, Vientiane, 2–7 December.Google Scholar
  6. Dasgupta, S., Deichmann, U., Meisner, C., & Wheeler, D. (2005). Where is the poverty-environment nexus? Evidence from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. World Development, 33(4), 617–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Rouw, A., Kadsachac, K., & Gay, I. (2003). Four farming systems: a comparative test for erosion, weeds and labour input in Luang Phabang District, Juth Pakai, 1, 15–23. United Nations Development Program Lao PDR, DecemberGoogle Scholar
  8. Dorward, A., Kydd, J., Morrison, J., & Poulton, C. (2005). Institutions, markets and economic coordination: Linking development policy to theory and praxis. Development and Change, 36(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
  9. Dupar, M., & Badenoch, N. (2002). Environment, livelihoods and local institutions: decentralization in mainland south-east Asia. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Evrard, O., & Goudineau, Y. (2004). Planned resettlement, unexpected migration and cultural trauma in Laos. Development and Change, 35(5), 937–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fujita, Y., & Phanvilay, K. (2004). Land and forest allocation and its implication on forest management and household livelihoods: comparison of case studies for community based natural resource management research in central Laos. Chapter presented at the 10th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, 9–13 August.Google Scholar
  12. GoL (1995). Order on customary rights and the use of forest resources based on the constitution of Lao PDR, Government of Lao PDR, Vientiane.Google Scholar
  13. GoL (1996). The forestry law, adopted by the National Assembly and promulgated by the President. Vientiane: Government of Lao PDR, 2 Nov.Google Scholar
  14. GoL (1998). The law on agriculture, adopted by the National Assembly and promulgated by the President. Vientiane: Government of Lao PDR, 6 Nov.Google Scholar
  15. IRD-NAFRI-IWMI (2004). Houay Pano catchment (district of Luang Phabang): A field guide, January.Google Scholar
  16. IUCN-The World Conservation Union (2000). Luang Phabang province environmental inventory, Vientiane.Google Scholar
  17. IWMI-ADB. (2003). Catchment approach to managing soil erosion in Asia: results and lessons learnt. Bangkok: IWMI-ADB.Google Scholar
  18. Kurian, M., & Dietz, T. (2005). How pro-poor are participatory in watershed management projects? An Indian case study. Research Report No. 92, Colombo: International Water Management Institute.Google Scholar
  19. Kurian, M., Dietz, T., & Murali, K. S. (2003). Scaling up participatory watershed management: Evidence from the Himalayan foothills. Economic and Political Weekly, 38(50), 5285–5293, 13 December.Google Scholar
  20. Kurian, M. & Lestrelin, G. (2004). Market integration, natural resource degradation and poverty: a comparative analysis of Thailand and Lao PDR. Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Practices for Sustainable Sloping Lands and Watershed Management. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai Hill Hotel, 5–9 September.Google Scholar
  21. Lestrelin, G., & Giordano, M. (2005). When conservation leads to degradation: a case study of Ban Lak Sip, Lao PDR, International Water Management Institute Research Report No. 91, Colombo: International Water Management Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Maglinao, A., Valentine, C., & Penning de Vries, F. (2003). The management of soil erosion consortium project: A case of integrated natural resources management research. Proceedings of the IWMI-ADB Project Annual Meeting and 7th MSEC Assembly, Vientiane, 2–7 December.Google Scholar
  23. MRC. (2003). Mekong river basin profile: towards the development of strategic research and development plans. Vientiane: Mekong River Commission Secretariat.Google Scholar
  24. NAFRI (2002). An innovative approach to sustainable land management in Lao PDR. National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Annual Progress Report, Vientiane, October 2001 to November 2002.Google Scholar
  25. Namara, R., Weligamage, P., & Barker, R. (2003). Prospects for adopting system of rice intensification in Sri Lanka: a socio-economic assessment. Research Report No. 75. Colombo: International Water Management Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Preisig, E. (1997). Khamu livelihood: farming the forest. Vientiane: Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  27. Roder, W. (1997). Slash and burn systems in transition: challenges for agricultural development in the hills of Northern Laos. Mountain Research and Development, 17(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing like a state: how certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sen, A. K. (1999). Development as freedom. USA/UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. State Planning Committee. (2000). The households of Lao PDR: Social and expenditure indicators. Vientiane: National Statistical Centre.Google Scholar
  31. Vandergeest, P. (2003). Land to some tillers: Development-induced displacement in Laos, International Social Science Journal, 175, 47–56, UNESCO, Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wapet, S., & Buranatanung, N. (2004). Factors affecting the adoption and non-adoption of the sloping land conservation farming systems by small-scale farmers in Thailand. Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Practices for Sustainable Sloping Lands and Watershed Management. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai Hill Hotel, 5–9 September.Google Scholar
  33. Whitaker, R. H. (1972). Evolution and measurement of species diversity, Taxon 21, 213–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations