Holocene Environmental Changes and the Evolution of the Neolithic Cultures in China

Chapter

Abstract

China has three great topographic zones (Fig. 19.1). The first, in the eastern part of the mainland, contains plains ranging from a few tens of meters to ca. 100 m in elevation and hills and low mountains ranging from hundreds of meters to ca. 1000 m asl. The first zone passes gradually westwards into the second, which is characterized primarily by hills and mountains over 1000 m high and by deep river valleys. The third topographic zone is the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateaus with average altitude over 4000 m asl.

Keywords

Hexi Corridor Foxtail Millet Neolithic Culture Yangtze River Region Broomcorn Millet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. An, CB, Tang, LY, Loukas, B, Chen, FH (2005) Climate change and cultural response around 4000 cal yr BP in the western part of Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary Research 63:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archaeological Team of Gansu Province (1986) Excavation brief report of the Dadiwan No. 901 Room site, Qin'an, Gansu. Cultural Relics 2:1–12Google Scholar
  3. Baoding Institute of Cultural Relics, Department of Archaeology, Peking University (1992) Brief report of excavation on the Nanzhuangtou site in Xushui Country, Hebei Province. Archaeology 11:961–970Google Scholar
  4. Chen Z, Wang Z, Schneiderman J, et al. (2005) Holocene climate fluctuations in the Yangtze delta of eastern China and the Neolithic response. The Holocene 15:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui HT, Kong ZC (1992) Primary climate change analysis of Megathermal Maximum in central and eastern region of Inner-Mongolia. In: Shi YF, Kong ZC (eds) Climate and environment of Holocene in China. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 72–79Google Scholar
  6. Erlitou Working Team (2003) Achievement in palace excavation of the Erlitou site. Communication of Ancient Civilization of China 5:50–53Google Scholar
  7. Fang H (2003) The decline reason of Yueshi Culture. Literature History and Philosophy 3:139–144Google Scholar
  8. Feng ZD, An CB, Wang HB (2006) Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the arid and semi-arid areas of China: a review. The Holocene 16:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gansu Provincial Museum, Qin'an Cultural Centers, Dadiwan Excavation Team (1981) Early Neolithic remains of the Dadiwan site, Qin’an, Gansu. Cultural Relics 4:1–8Google Scholar
  10. Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology (2006) Excavation Brief Report of the Dadiwan Neolithic site, Qin'an. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 945 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Gao GR (2000) The Pre-Qin Archaeological collection of Haidai Region. Science Press, Beijing, 341 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao GR, Luan FS (2004) Dawenkou Culture. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 205 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao GR, Shao WP (2005) Haidai Culture and Qilu Civilization. Jiangsu Education Press, Nanjing, 744 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Gong QM (2002), Yangshao Culture, Cultural Relics Press. Beijing, 239 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Guiyang Institute of Geo-Chemistry (1977) Natural environment change in the southern part of Liaoning Province. Science in China 6:605–614Google Scholar
  16. Guo F (1992) Prediction of settlements size and population growth trend: study on population at different stages of neolithic cultures in the Middle Yangtze River Region. Relics From South 1:55–60Google Scholar
  17. Guo L (2003) Conflict and war: from Daxi to Shijiahe. In: Committee of State Council, State Cultural Relic Bureau (eds) Three Gorges Project Construction. Academic Papers on Heritage and Archaeological Research in Three Gorges. Science Press, Beijing, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  18. Guo SB (1985) The original agriculture remains of the Chegushan site. Hunan. Agricultural Archaeology 2:86–89Google Scholar
  19. Henan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology (1983) Excavation on the Wangchenggang site, Dengfeng. Cultural Relics 8:8–20Google Scholar
  20. Henan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology (1992) Excavation on the Haojiatai site, Yanshi. Huaxia Archaeology 3:71–100Google Scholar
  21. Henan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology (2002) Brief report of excavation on the Guchengzhai site of Longshan Culture, Xinmi, Henan. Huaxia Archaeology 2:53–82Google Scholar
  22. Hunan Provincial Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Relics (2006) Pengtoushan and Bashidang. Science Press, Beijing, 734 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Hunan Provincial Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Relics (2007) Chengtoushan in Lixian – Excavation report of a Neolithic Site. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 809 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Institute of Archaeology, CASS (1988) The Sanlihe site of Jiao County. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 201 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Jiang LP, Sheng DP (2007) The Shangshan site and Shangshan Culture. In: Mo DW, Cao JY, Zheng WH, et al. (eds) Research of Environmental Archaeology (Volume 4). Peking University Press, Beijing, pp 25–42Google Scholar
  26. Jiang WD (2007), Sanctity and Refinement, Zhejiang Photography Press, Hangzhou, 293 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Jiao J (2007) A 5600-year-old wooden well in Zhejiang Province. Journal of Hydrogeology of China 15:1021–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kong ZC, Du NQ, Liu GM (1991) The Preliminary Study of Environmental Archaeology 8000a-2400a BP in Chifeng City, Inner-Mongolia. In: Zhou KS (ed) Researches of Environmental Archaeology (Volume 1). Science Press, Beijing, pp 112–119Google Scholar
  29. Kong ZC, Du NQ, Shan FS, et al. (1990) Holocene vegetation change and climate analysis around Qinghai Lake: the palynological data analysis in QH85-14C Bore. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology (China) 10 (3):79–96Google Scholar
  30. Li XQ, Dodson J, Zhou J, Zhou XY (2009) Increases of population and expansion of rice agriculture in Asia, and anthropogenic methane emissions since 5000 BP. Quaternary International 202:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li YM (2003), Peiligang culture, Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 211 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Liaoning Institute of Archaeology (1997), Jade of Hongshan Culture. Cultural Relic Press, Beijing, pp a-52, b-71, c-69, d-51, e-53, f-50Google Scholar
  33. Liu HW (2008) The germination of jade carving remains of Liangzhu Culture. Archaeology and Cultural Relics 1:29–34Google Scholar
  34. Liu J (2006) Hemudu Culture. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 192 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu L (2004) The Chinese Neolithic –Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 310 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Lu HY (1989) The spore-pollen assemblages in the sediments in the southern Bohai sea since the late Pleistocene and its palaeoenvironment analysis. Journal of Oceanography of Huanghai and Bohai Seas 7:11–26Google Scholar
  37. Lu HY, Zhang JP (2008) Neolithic culture evolution and Holocene climate change in the Guanzhong Basin, Shaanxi, China. Quaternary Sciences 28:1050–1060Google Scholar
  38. Lu HY, Zhang JP, Liu KB, et al. (2009) Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:7367–7372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Luan FS (1997) The Archaeological Research on Haidai Region. In: Luan FS (ed) The Archaeological Research on Haidai Region. Shandong University Press, Jinan, pp 318–347Google Scholar
  40. Mo DW, Li F, Li SC, Kong ZC (1996) A preliminary study on the paleoenvironment of the Middle Holocene in the Hulu River region in Gansu Province and its effects on human activity. Acta Geographica Sinica 51:59–69Google Scholar
  41. Mo Duowen, Yang Xiaoyan, Wang Hui (2002) Study on the environmental background of the Niuheliang site, Hongshan Culture, and the relationship between ancient man and environment. Quaternary Sciences 22:174–181Google Scholar
  42. Morris C, Overpeck JT, Cole JE (2003) A synthesis of abrupt changes in the Asian summer monsoon since the last deglaciation. The Holocene 13:465–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Participants of the Training Course for Excavation Managers (1999) Excavation of a city in Yangshao Period in the Xishan site, Zhengzhou City. Cultural Relics 7:4–15Google Scholar
  44. Puyang Wenguan Hui (1988) Brief report of excavation on the Xishuipo site, Puyang, Henan Province, Cultural Relics 3:1–6Google Scholar
  45. Shandong Administration of Relics (1974) The Dawenkou site. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 164 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Shandong Fieldwork Team, Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the Museum of Teng County, Shandong (1984) The excavation report in the Bexin site in Teng County, Shandong. Journal of Archaeology 2:159–191Google Scholar
  47. Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology (1989) The clearing of burials of Longshan Culture in Xizhufeng, Linqu. In: Zhang XH (ed) Archaeology in Haidai Region(Volume 1). Shandong University Press, Jinan, pp 219–224Google Scholar
  48. Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology (1999) 50th Anniversary of Archaeology Research in Shaanxi Province. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 1264 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Shi YF, Kong ZC, Wang SM, et al. (1992) The basic features of climate and environment in China during Holocene Megathermal period. In: Shi YF, Kong ZC (eds) The climate and the environment during Holocene Megathermal period in China. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  50. Song YQ (2002) The Simple Comment on the Man-land Relationship of the Origin of Chinese Civilization. Science Press, Beijing, 227 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Su BQ (1988) The New Dawn of Chinese Civilization. Southeast Culture 5:1–7Google Scholar
  52. Sun JZ, Ke MH, Sun XR, et al. (1991) Holocene paleoenvironment in Loess Plateau. In: Sun JZ, Zhao JB (eds) Quaternary in Loess Plateau. Science Press, Beijing, pp 186–205Google Scholar
  53. Tang LY, An CB (2007) Sporopollen record of vegetation change and drought events in Longzhong Loess Plateau Holocene. Progress in Natural Sciences 17:1371–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tang LY, Shen CM (1992) The vegetation and climate during Holocene Megathermal period in northern Jiangsu. In: Shi YF, Kong ZC (eds) The climate and environment during Holocene Megathermal period in China. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 80–93Google Scholar
  55. Tarasov P, Jin GY, Wagner M (2006) Mid-Holocene environmental and human dynamics in northeastern China reconstructed from pollen and archaeological data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 241:284–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. The Inner Mongolia Work Team of Institute of Archaeology CASS (2004) The excavation on the Xinglonggou site in the year of 2002-2003, Chifeng City, Inner-Mongolia. Archaeology 7:3–8Google Scholar
  57. The Radiocarbon Laboratory of Peking University (1996) The Carbon 14 dating report. Cultural Relics 6:91–95Google Scholar
  58. Tian GL (2004) The Origin of Civilization of Western Liao River Region in Northeastern China. Chinese Publishing House, Beijing, 290 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Tong GB, Zhang JP, Yan FH, Mai XX (1991) Sporo-pollen sequence and division of climatic period in the eastern North China plain since late Pleistocene. Seismology and Geology, 13:259–265Google Scholar
  60. Tong WH (1984) Agricultural remains and its correlative problems in the Cishan site. Archaeology 1:194–207Google Scholar
  61. Wang J, Lu HY, Shen CM (1990) Factor interpretation method and quantitative analysis of climatic changes over the last 12000 years in China. In: Liu C, Zhao SQ, Zhang PY, Shi PJ (eds) Global Changes and Environmental Evolution in China. Proceedings of Section III, Regional Conference on Asian Pacific Countries of IGU, The Inner Mongolia Press of Science and Technology, Hohhot, CN, pp 62–68Google Scholar
  62. Wang SM (2006) Preliminary studies on prehistorical social complex evolvement in Taihu Lake Area. Southeast Culture 3:10–16Google Scholar
  63. Wang YJ, Cheng H, Edwards RL, et al. (2008) Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature, 451:1090–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang ZL (1995) Application of opal phytolith analysis in the Yuchisi site, Mengcheng, Anhui. Archaeology 1:88–90Google Scholar
  65. Wu J, Chen M, Liu C (2009) Astronomical function and date of the Taosi observatory. Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy 52(1):151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xia ZK, Deng H, Wu HL (2000) Geomorphologic Background of the Prehistoric Cultural Evolution in the Xilamulun River Basin, Inner-Mongolia. Acta Geographica Sinica 55:329–336Google Scholar
  67. Xie DJ (2002) Prehistoric archaeology of Gansu-Qinghai region. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 258 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Xie XG (2007) Research on Xiangfen Taosi site, Science Press, Beijing, 724 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Xu H, Du JP (2005), Research on Yanshi Erlitou site, Science Press, Beijing, 852 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. Xue ZQ (2008) Discussion on the position and function of the Xinglongwa culture in the origin of the Chinese culture. Journal of Dalian University 29(5):11–15Google Scholar
  71. Yan WM (1986) The Lepan site in Zhangqiu County from Dawenkou Culture to Shang Dynasty. In: Chinese Society of Archaeology (ed) The Archaeological Almanac of China. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, CN, pp 136Google Scholar
  72. Yan WM (2000) Agricultural Occurrence and Origin of Civilization. Science Press, Beijing, 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Yuan J (2001) Origin of domestic animals during neolithic period in China. Cultural Relics 5:51–58Google Scholar
  74. Zhang J, Harbottle G, Wang C, Kong Z (1999) Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site in China. Nature 401(6751):366–368Google Scholar
  75. Zhang WX, Yuan JR (1998) A Preliminary study on the ancient rice excavated from Yuchanyan, Daoxian, Hunan Province. Acta Agronomic Sinica 24:416–420Google Scholar
  76. Zhang XH (1993) The Chengziya site and Chinese Civilization. In: Zhang XH (ed) Academic Papers on Archaeological Research for 60th Anniversary of Excavation on the Chengziya site. Qilu Book House Press, Jinan, pp 13–25Google Scholar
  77. Zhang XQ (1992) Outline of Neolithic Cultures in the Middle Yangtze River. Hubei Science and Technology Press, Wuhan, 326 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang ZB, Wang D, Ding JX (1981) Natural environment change around Beijing City 13000 a BP. Scientia Geological Sinica 3:259–268Google Scholar
  79. Zhang ZH (2004) Neolithic Culture in Lower Yangtze River. Hubei Education Press, Wuhan, 268 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhao BC, Wang ZH, Chen ZY, WuG (2007) Climate, vegetation and geomorphology evolution since 8 ka BP recorded by sediments from dish-like depression of Taihu Lake Plain. Journal of Palaeogeography 3:321–330Google Scholar
  81. Zhao H (2006a) The prehistoric basis of China: the central region of China(Zhongyuan) as the center of the historical trend. Cultural Relics 8:50–54Google Scholar
  82. Zhao H (2006b) The dawn of Chinese civilization. In: Yan WM, Li L (ed) The history of Chinese civilization (1). Peking University Press, pp 31–94Google Scholar
  83. Zhao ZJ (2005) Botanical archaeology and recent developments. Archaeology 7:42-50Google Scholar
  84. Zhao ZJ, Piperno D (2000) Late Pleistocene/Holocene environments in the middle reaches of Yangtze River Valley, China and rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication: the phytolith evidence. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 15:203–222Google Scholar
  85. Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, The Xiaoshan Museum (2004) Kuahuqiao. Cultural Relics Press, Beijing, 379 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhoukou Relics Office (1983) Brief report of excavation on Pingliangtai City of Longshan Culture, Huaiyang, Henan Province. Cultural Relics 3:21–36Google Scholar
  87. Zong Y (2004) Mid-Holocene sea-level highstand along the Southeast Coast of China. Quaternary International 117:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zong, Y, Chen, Z, Innes, JB, et al. (2007) Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China. Nature 449:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental and Urban SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations