Landscape Influences on the Development of the Medieval–Early Renaissance City-states of Pisa, Florence, and Siena, Italy

  • I. Peter MartiniEmail author
  • Giovanni Sarti
  • Pasquino Pallecchi
  • Armando Costantini


The objective of this chapter is to analyze how the local landscape and environmental conditions influenced the evolution of the city-states of Pisa, Florence (Firenze), and Siena, primarily from the High (~1000–1300 AD) to Late Medieval Age and early Renaissance (~1300–1500 AD). The three cities are located in the province of Tuscany in the central north-western part of Italy (Fig. 13.1).


Late Miocene Thirteenth Century Medieval Time Medieval Climatic Anomaly Soccer Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Research like these protracted over many years has benefited from the help of colleagues, students and enthusiastic local peoples like some witty Florentines and ‘bottinieri’ of Siena. Sarti likes to single out for a special thank M. Bini, S. Giacomelli, G. Gattiglia and M. Baldassarri of Pisa.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Peter Martini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giovanni Sarti
  • Pasquino Pallecchi
  • Armando Costantini
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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