Structural and Functional Adaptations in Plants for Salinity Tolerance

Chapter

Abstract

Salt tolerance in plants is a multifarious phenomenon involving a variety of changes at molecular, organelle, cellular, tissue as well as whole plant level. In addition, salt tolerant plants show a range of adaptations not only in morphological or structural features but also in metabolic and physiological processes that enable them to survive under extreme saline environments. Morpho–anatomical adaptations include xeromorphic characteristics like thick epidermis and sclerenchyma, well developed bulliform cells, increased density of trichomes and increased moisture retaining capacity by increasing cell size and vacuolar volume. Development of excretory structures like vesicular hairs and salt glands is another major structural adaptation and very crucial for salt tolerance. Physiological adaptations include restricted toxic ion uptake, increased succulence, osmotic adjustment and exclusion of toxic Na+ and Cl.

Keywords

Succulence Osmotic adjustment Salt exclusion Ion uptake 

References

  1. Abernethy GA, Fountain DW, McManus MT (1998) Observations on the leaf anatomy of Festuca novae–zelandiae and biochemical responses to a water deficit. NZ J Bot 36:113–123Google Scholar
  2. Abraham E, Rigo G, Szekely G, Nagy R, Koncz C, Szabados L (2003) Light-dependent induction of proline biosynthesis by abscisic acid and salt stress is inhibited by brassinosteroid in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 51:363–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Acharya SN, Darroch BA, Hermesh R, Woosaree J (1992) Salt stress tolerance in native Alberta populations of slender wheatgrass and alpine bluegrass. Can J Plant Sci 72:785–792Google Scholar
  4. Akram M, Akhtar S, Javed IH, Wahid A, Rasul E (2002) Anatomical attributes of different wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions/varieties to NaCl salinity. Int J Agri Biol 4:166–168Google Scholar
  5. Allen JA, Chambers JL, Stine M (1994) Prospects for increasing salt tolerance of forest trees: a review. Tree Physiol 14:843–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvarez JM, Rocha JF, Machado SR (2008) Bulliform cells in Loudetiopsis chrysothrix (Nees) Conert and Tristachya leiostachya Nees (Poaceae): Structure in relation to function. Braz Arch Biol Technol 51:113–119Google Scholar
  7. Amarasinghe V, Watson L (1988) Comparative ultrastructure of microhairs in grasses. Bot J Linnean Soc 98:303–319Google Scholar
  8. Amtmann A, Sanders D (1999) Mechanisms of Na+ uptake by plant cells. Adv Bot Res 29:76–112Google Scholar
  9. Ashour NI, Serag MS, El–Haleem AKA, Mekki BB (1997) Forage production from three grass species under saline irrigation in Egypt J Arid Environ 37:299–307Google Scholar
  10. Ashraf M (1994) Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 13:17–42Google Scholar
  11. Ashraf M (2003) Relationships between leaf gas exchange characteristics and growth of differently adapted populations of Blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) under salinity or waterlogging. Plant Sci 165:69–75Google Scholar
  12. Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199:361–376Google Scholar
  13. Ashraf M (2009) Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotech Adv 27:84–93Google Scholar
  14. Ashraf M, Bashir A (2003) Salt stress induced changes in some organic metabolites and ionic relations in nodules and other plant parts of two crop legumes differing in salt tolerance. Flora 198:486–498Google Scholar
  15. Ashraf M, Hameed M, Arshad M, Ashraf MY, Akhtar K (2006) Salt tolerance of some potential forage grasses from Cholistan desert of Pakistan. In: Khan MA, Weber DJ (eds) Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer, Netherlands, pp 31–54Google Scholar
  16. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166:3–16Google Scholar
  17. Ashraf M, Yasmin N (1997) Responses of some arid zone grasses to brackish water. Tropenlandwirt 98:3–12Google Scholar
  18. Ashraf MY, Ashraf M, Sarwar G (2005) Physiological approaches to improving plant salt tolerance. In: Ramdane D (ed) Crops: growth, quality and biotechnology, WFL Publisher, Helsinki, pp 1206–1227Google Scholar
  19. Ball MC (1988) Salinity tolerance in the mangroves, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina. I. Water use in relation to growth, carbon partitioning and salt balance. Australian J Plant Physiol 15:447–464Google Scholar
  20. Briens M, Larher F (1982) Osmoregulation in halophytic higher plants: a comparative study of soluble carbohydrates, polyols, betaines and free proline. Plant Cell Environ 5:287–292Google Scholar
  21. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu JK (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45:437–448Google Scholar
  22. Colmer TD, Flowers TJ (2008) Flooding tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:964–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Delane R, Greenway H, Munns R, Gibbs J (1982) Ion concentration and carbohydrate status of the elongating leaf tissue of Hordeum vulgare growing at high external NaCl. I. Relationship between solute concentration and growth. J Exp Bot 33:557–573Google Scholar
  24. Dickison WC (2000) Integrative Plant Anatomy. Massachusetts: Harcourt/Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Drennan P, Pammenter NW (1982) Physiology of salt excretion in the mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. New Phytol 91:597–597Google Scholar
  26. Dubey RS (1997) Photosynthesis in plants under stressful conditions. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of Photosynthesis, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 859–875Google Scholar
  27. Fahn A (1990) Plant anatomy. 4th edn. Oxford: Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:945–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Flowers TJ, Garcia A, Koyarna M, Yeo AR (1997) Breeding for salt tolerance in crop plants–the role of molecular biology. Acta Physiol Plant 19:427–433Google Scholar
  30. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. Quart Rev Biol 61:313–337Google Scholar
  31. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Leach RP, Rogers WJ, Yeo AR (1989) Salt tolerance in the halophyte Suaeda maritima. In: Plant water relations and growth under stress: Proceedings of the Yamada conference XXII, Osaka, Japan, pp 173–180Google Scholar
  32. Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 28:89–121Google Scholar
  33. Flowers TJ, Yeo AR (1986) Ion relations of plants under drought and salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:75–91Google Scholar
  34. Genkel PA (1954) Soleustoichivost’ rastenii i puti ee napravlennogo povysheniya (Salt Tolerance in plants and methods for its improvement), Akad. Nauk SSSR, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  35. Ghassemi F, Jakeman AJ, Nix HA (1995) Salinization of land and water resources. human causes, extent, management, and case studies. University of New South Wales, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  36. Gill KS, Dutt SK (1982) Effect of salinity on stomatal number, size and opening in barley genotypes. Biol Plant 24:266–269Google Scholar
  37. Glenn EP (1987) Relationship between cation accumulation and water content of salt–tolerant grasses and a sedge. Plant Cell Environ 10:205–212Google Scholar
  38. Glenn EP, Brown JJ, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance and crop potential of halophytes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 18:227–255Google Scholar
  39. Gorham J, Jones RGW (1990) A physiologist’s approach to improve the salt tolerance of wheat. Rachis 9:20–24Google Scholar
  40. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 31:149–190Google Scholar
  41. Gulzar S, Khan MA, Ungar IA (2003) Salt tolerance of a coastal salt marsh grass. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:2595–2605Google Scholar
  42. Hameed M, Ashraf M (2008) Physiological and biochemical adaptations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. from the salt range (Pakistan) to salinity stress. Flora 203:683–694Google Scholar
  43. Hameed M, Ashraf M (2009) Panicum antidotale: A potential grass for salt affected Soils. In: Kafi M, Khan MA (eds) Crop and forage production using saline waters. NAM S and T Centre, Daya Publishing House, New Dehli, pp 334Google Scholar
  44. Hameed M, Ashraf M, Naz N (2009) Anatomical adaptations to salinity in cogon grass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel] from the Salt Range, Pakistan. Plant Soil 322: 229–238Google Scholar
  45. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu J-K, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hose E, Clarkson DT, Steudle E, Schreiber L, Hartung W (2001) The exodermis: a variable apoplastic barrier. J Exp Bot 52:2245–2264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hu Y, Fromm J, Schmidhalter U (2005) Effect of salinity on tissue architecture in expanding wheat leaves. Planta 220:838–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Humphreys MO, Kraus MP, Wyn–Jones RG (1986) Leaf–surface properties in relation to tolerance of salt spray in Festuca rubra ssp. litoralis (G.F.W. Meyer) Auquier. New Phytol 103: 717–723Google Scholar
  49. Hwang Y-H, Chen S-C (1995) Anatomical responses in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce seedlings growing in the presence of different concentrations of NaCl. Bot Bull Acad Sin 36:181–188Google Scholar
  50. Jenks MA, Ashworth EN (1999) Plant epicuticular waxes: function, production, and genetics. In: Janick J (ed) Horticultural reviews, vol 23. Wiley, New York, pp 1–68Google Scholar
  51. Jeschke WD (1984) K+–Na+ exchange at cellular membranes, intracellular compartmentation of cations, and salt tolerance. In: Staples RC (ed) Salinity tolerance in plants: strategies for crop improvement. Wiley, New York, pp 37–66Google Scholar
  52. Karmoker JL, Farhana S, Rashid P (2008) Effects of salinity on ion accumulation in maize (Zea mays L. cv. Bari–7). Bangladesh J Bot 37:203–205Google Scholar
  53. Kemp PR, Cunningham GL (1981) Light, temperature and salinity effects on growth, leaf anatomy and photosynthesis of Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene. American J Bot 68:507–516Google Scholar
  54. Läuchli A (1984) Salt exclusion: an adaptation of legumes for crops and pastures under saline conditions. In: Staples RC (ed) Salinity tolerance in plants: Strategies for crop improvement. Wiley, New York, pp 171–187Google Scholar
  55. Lee G, Carrow RN, Duncan RR, Eiteman MA, Rieger MW (2007) Synthesis of organic osmolytes and salt tolerance mechanisms in Paspalum vaginatum. Environ Exp Bot 63:19–27Google Scholar
  56. Lipschitz N, Waisel Y (1974) Existence of salt glands in various genera of the Gramineae. New Phytol 73:507–507Google Scholar
  57. Lockhart JA (1965) Analysis of irreversible plant cell elongation. J Theor Biol 8:264–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Longstreth DJ, Nobel PS (1979) Salinity effects on leaf anatomy. Consequences for photosynthesis. Plant Physiol 63:700–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Maas EV, Nieman RH (1978) Physiology of plant tolerance to salinity. In: Jung GA (ed) Crop tolerance to sub–optimal land conditions. Amer. Soc. Agron. Spec. Publ., USA, pp 277–299Google Scholar
  60. Mansour MMF (2000) Nitrogen containing compounds and adaptation of plants to salinity stress. Biol Plant 43:491–500Google Scholar
  61. Marcum KB, Anderson SJ, Engelke MC (1998) Salt gland ion secretion: A salinity tolerance mechanism among five zoysiagrass species. Crop Sci 38:806–810Google Scholar
  62. Marcum KB, Murdoch CL (1990) Salt Glands in the Zoysieae. Ann Bot 66:1–7Google Scholar
  63. Marcum KB, Murdoch CL (1992) Salt tolerance of the coastal salt marsh grass, Sporobulus virginicus (L.) Kunth New Phytol 120:281–281Google Scholar
  64. Marcum KB, Murdoch CL (1994) Salinity tolerance mechanisms of six C4 turfgrasses. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 119:779–784Google Scholar
  65. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Martino CD, Delfine S, Pizzuto R, Loreto F, Fuggi A (2003) Free amino acids and glycine betaine in leaf osmoregulation of spinach responding to increasing salt stress. New Phytol 158:455–463Google Scholar
  67. Massoud FI (1974) Salinity and alkalinity as soil degradation hazards. FAO/UNDP Expert consultation on soil degradation. FAO, Rome, June 10–14, p 21Google Scholar
  68. Mauseth JD (1988) Plant anatomy. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  69. Mimura T, Kura–Hotta M, Tsujimura T, Ohnishi M, Miura M, Okazaki Y, Mimura M, Maeshima M, Washitani–Nemoto S (2003) Rapid increase of vascular volume in response to salt stress. Planta 216:397–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mokronosov AT, Shmakova TV (1978) Comparative analysis of the mesostructure of photosynthetic apparatus in mesophytic and xerophytic plants. In: Mezostruktura i funktsional’naya aktivnost’ fotosinteticheskogo apparata (Mesostructure and functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus), Sverdlovsk: Ural’sk. Gos. Univ., pp 103–107Google Scholar
  71. Munns R (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, James RA, Condon AG (2002) Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant Soil 247:93–105Google Scholar
  73. Munns R, James RA (2003) Screening methods for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant Soil 253:201–218Google Scholar
  74. Munns R, James RA, Läuchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nagalevskii VY (2001) Galofity Severnogo Kavkaza (Halophytes of the Northern Caucasus), Krasnodar: Kubansk. Gos. Univ.Google Scholar
  77. Naidoo G, Mundree SG (1993) Relationship between morphological and physiological responses to waterlogging and salinity in Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth. Oecologia 93: 360–366Google Scholar
  78. Naidoo G, Naidoo Y (1998) Salt tolerance in Sporobolus virginicus: the importance of ion relations and salt excretion. Flora 193:337–337Google Scholar
  79. Naz N, Hameed M, Wahid A, Arshad M, Ahmad MSA (2009) Patterns of ion excretion and survival in two stoloniferous arid zone grasses. Physiol Plant 135:185–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Niknam SR, Mccomb J (2000) Salt tolerance screening of selected Australian woody species–a review. Forest Ecol Manage 139:1–19Google Scholar
  81. Oldeman LR, Hakkeling RTA, Sombroek WG (1991) World map of the status of human–induced soil degradation: An explanatory note. ISRIC–UNEP Report, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  82. Osmond CB, Luttge U, West KR, Pallaghy CK, Shacher–Hill B (1969) Ion absorption in Atriplex leaf tissue II. Secretion of ions to epidermal bladders. Aust J Biol Sci 22:797–814Google Scholar
  83. Pasternak D, Nerd A, De Malach Y (1993) Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions IX. The salt tolerance of six forage crops. Agric Water Manage 24:321–334Google Scholar
  84. Pitman MG (1984) Transport across the root and shoot/root interactions. In: Staples RC (ed) Salinity tolerance in plants: strategies for crop improvement. Wiley, New York, pp 93–123Google Scholar
  85. Poljakoff-Mayber A (1975) Morphological and anatomical changes in plants as a response to salinity stress. In: Poljakoff-Mayber A, Gale J (eds) Plants in saline environment. Springr-Verlag, New York, pp 97–117Google Scholar
  86. Rabe B (1990) Stress physiology: the functional significance of the accumulation of nitrogen containing compounds, J Hort Sci 65:231–243Google Scholar
  87. Reinoso HLS, Ramírez L, Luna V (2004) Salt-induced changes in the vegetative anatomy of Prosopis strombulifera (Leguminosae). Can J Bot/Rev Can Bot 82(5):618–628Google Scholar
  88. Rengasamy P (2002) Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in Australian sodic soils: an overview. Aust J Exp Agric 42:351–61Google Scholar
  89. Ristic Z, Jenks MA (2002) Leaf cuticle and water loss in maize lines differing in dehydration avoidance. J Plant Physiol 159:645–651Google Scholar
  90. Robinson D, Gordon DC, Powell W (1997) Mapping physiological traits in barley. New Phytol 137:149–157Google Scholar
  91. Rozema J, Pephagen I, Sminia T (1977) A light and electron microscopical study on the structure and function of salt gland of Glaux maritima L. New Phytol 79:665–671Google Scholar
  92. Samoui MA (1971) Differentiation des trichomes chez Atriplex halimus L. Comptes Rendus Sean. Acad Sci 273:1268–1271Google Scholar
  93. Song J, Feng G, Zhang F (2006) Salinity and temperature effect on three salt resistant euhalophytes, Halostachys capsica, Kalidium foliatum and Halocnemum strobilaceum. Plant Sci 279: 201–207Google Scholar
  94. Stenlid G (1956) Salt losses and redistribution of salts in higher plants. Encyc Plant Physiol 4: 615–637Google Scholar
  95. Storey R, Walker RR (1999) Citrus and salinity. Sci Hort 78:39–81Google Scholar
  96. Szabolcs I (1989) Salt affected soils. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  97. Szabolcs I (1994) Soils and salinisation. In: Pessarakali M (eds) Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker, New York. pp 3–11Google Scholar
  98. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Plant Physiology. 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates Inc Publishers MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  99. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot 91: 503–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomson WW, Faraday CD, Oross JW (1988) Salt glands. In: Baker DA, Hall JL (eds) Solute transport in plant cells and tissues. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, pp 498–537Google Scholar
  101. Thomson WW, Platt-Aloia K (1979) Ultrastructural transitions associated with the development of the bladder cells of the trichomes of Atriplex. Cytobios 25:105–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vakhrusheva DV (1989) Mesostructure of photosynthetic apparatus in C3 plants in the arid zone of Central Asia, Extended Abst. Cand. Sci. (Biol.) Dissertation, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  103. Voronkova NM, Burkovskaya EV, Bezdeleva TA, Burundukova OL (2008) Morphological and biological features of plants related to their adaptation to coastal habitats. Russian J Ecol 39:1–7Google Scholar
  104. Waisel Y (1972) Biology of halophytes. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Waisel Y (1985) The stimulating effects of NaCl on root growth of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Physiol Plant 64:519–522Google Scholar
  106. Walsh GE (1990) Anatomy of the seed and seedling of Spartina alterniflora Lois. (Poaceae). Aquatic Bot 38(2–3):177–193Google Scholar
  107. Winicov I (1998) New molecular approaches to improving salt tolerance in crop plants. Ann Bot 82:703–710Google Scholar
  108. Wyn Jones G, Gorham J (2002) Intra– and inter-cellular compartments of ions. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment-plant-molecules. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 159–180Google Scholar
  109. Wyn Jones RG (1981) Salt tolerance. In: Johnson CB (ed) Physiological processes limiting plant productivity. Butterworths, London, pp 271–292Google Scholar
  110. Zhao K, Hai F, Ungar IA (2002) Survey of halophyte species in China. Plant Sci 163:491–498Google Scholar
  111. Zhao Y, Yong Z, ZiZhi H, ShunGuo Y (2000) Studies on microscopic structure of Puccinellia tenuiflora stem under salinity stress. Grassland of China 5:6–9Google Scholar
  112. Zidan I, Azaizeh H, Neumann PM (1990) Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification? Plant Physiol 93:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyCollege of Science, King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations