Heavy Metal Toxicity in Plants

Chapter

Abstract

Although many metal elements are essential for the growth of plants in low concentrations, their excessive amounts in soil above threshold values can result in toxicity. This detrimental effect varies with the nature of an element as well as plant species. Heavy metal toxicity in plants depends on the bioavailability of these elements in soil solution, which is a function of pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity of the soil. Nonessential metals/metalloids such as Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, and Sb are toxic both in their chemically combined or elemental forms, and plants responses to these elements vary across a broad spectrum from tolerance to toxicity. For example, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in excessive concentrations may replace essential metals in pigments or enzymes disrupting their function and causing oxidative stress. Heavy metal toxicity hinders the growth process of the underground and aboveground plant parts and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, which is often correlated with progress in senescence. To avoid the toxicity, plants have developed specific mechanisms by which toxic elements are excluded, retained at root level, or transformed into physiologically tolerant forms. In this chapter, we have discussed the toxic effects of heavy metals on plant growth and their detoxification mechanisms that enable them to tolerate high levels of metals in the soil environment.

Keywords

Heavy metal Cadmium Chromium Photosynthesis Tolerance 

References

  1. Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 105–123Google Scholar
  2. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments. Biochemistry, Alburry, Australia, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  3. Alaoui-Sosse B, Genet P, Vinit-Dunand F, Toussaint ML, Epron D, Badot PM (2004) Effect of copper on growth in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) and its relationships with carbohydrate accumulation and changes in ion contents. Plant Sci 166:1213–1218Google Scholar
  4. Alcantara E, Romera FJ, Canete M, De la Guardia MD (1994) Effects of heavy metals on both induction and function of root Fe(III) reductase in Fe deficient cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. J Exp Bot 45:1893–18 98Google Scholar
  5. Ali MB, Vajpayee P, Tripathi RD, Rai UN, Singh SN, Singh SP (2003) Phytoremediation of lead, nickel and copper by Salix acmophylla Boiss.: Role of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant substances. B Environ Contam Toxicol 70:462–469Google Scholar
  6. Anderson AJ, Meyer DR, Mayer FK (1972) Heavy metal toxicities: Levels of nickel, cobalt and chromium in the soil and plants associated with visual symptoms and variation in growth of an oat crop. Aust J Agric Res 24:557–71Google Scholar
  7. Aora AS, Saxena S, Sharma DK (2006) Tolerance and phytoaccumulation of chromium by three Azolla species. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:97–100Google Scholar
  8. Assche F Van, Clijsters H (1990) Effect of metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 13:195–206Google Scholar
  9. Baker AJM, Walker PL (1989) Physiological responses of plants to heavy metals and the quantitificatioin of tolerance and toxicity. Chem Spec Biovail 1:7–17Google Scholar
  10. Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Hajar ASM (1994) Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in British population of the metallophyte Thalaspi caerulesens J. and C. Presl (Brassicaeae). New Phytol 127:61–68Google Scholar
  11. Barcelo J, Poschenriender C, Ruano A, Gunse B (1985) Leaf water potential in Cr(VI) treated bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Plant Physiol Suppl 77:163–4Google Scholar
  12. Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C, Gunse B (1986) Water relations of chromium VI treated bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) under both normal and water stress conditions. J Exp Bot 37:178–187Google Scholar
  13. Barcelo J, Poschenrieder CH (1990) Plant water relations as affected by heavy metal stress: a review. J Plant Nutr 13:1–37Google Scholar
  14. Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C, Vazquez MD, Gunse B, Vernet JP (1993) Beneficial and toxic effects of chromium in plants: Solution culture, pot and field studies. Studies in Environmental Science No. 55, Paper Presented at the 5th International Conference on Environmental Contamination. Morges, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  15. Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C, Lombini A, Llugany M, Bech J, Dinelli E (2001) Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. In: Abstracts costs action 837 WG2 workshop on phytoremediation of trace elements in contaminated soils and waters (with special emphasis on Zn, Cd, Pb and As), Madrid, 5–7 April, p 23Google Scholar
  16. Bartisz G (1997) Oxidative stress in plants. Acta Physiol Plant 19:47–64Google Scholar
  17. Barton LL, Johnson GV, O’Nan AG, Wagener BM (2000) Inhibition of ferric chelate reductase in alfalfa roots by cobalt, nickel, chromium, and copper. J Plant Nutr 23:1833–1845Google Scholar
  18. Becquer T, Quantin C, Sicot M, Boudot JP (2003) Chromium availability in ultramafic soils from New Caledonia. Sci Total Environ 301:251– 261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Belimov AA, Safronova VI, Tsyganov VE, Borisov AY, Kozhemyakov AP, Stepanok VV, Martenson AM, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Tikhonovich IA (2003) Genetic variability in tolerance to cadmium and accumulation of heavy metals in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Euphytica 131(1):25–35Google Scholar
  20. Bera AK, Kanta-Bokaria AK, Bokaria K (1999) Effect of tannery effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and chloroplast pigment content in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Environ Ecol 17(4):958–961Google Scholar
  21. Bertrand M, Poirier I (2005) Photosynthetic organisms and excess of metals. Photosynthetica 43(3):345–353Google Scholar
  22. Bishnoi NR, Chugh LK, Sawhney SK (1993a) Effect of chromium on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation in pea (Pisum sativum L) seedlings. J Plant Physiol 142:25–30Google Scholar
  23. Bishnoi NR, Dua A, Gupta VK, Sawhney SK (1993b) Effect of chromium on seed germination, seedling growth and yield of peas. Agric Ecosyst Environ 47:47–57Google Scholar
  24. Blaylock JM, Huang JW (2000) Phytoextraction of metals; In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Phytoremediation of toxic metals: Using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Boonyapookana B, Upatham ES, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Singhakaew S (2002) Phytoaccumulation and phytotoxicity of cadmium and chromium in duckweed Wolffia globosa. Int J Phytoremed 4:87–100Google Scholar
  26. Booth B (2005) The added danger of counterfeit cigarettes. Environ Sci Technol 39:34APubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bowen JE (1987) Physiology of genotyping differences in zinc and copper uptake in rice and tomato. Plant Soil 99:115–125Google Scholar
  28. Brooks RR (1998) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown SL, Chaney RL, Angle JS, Baker AJM (1994) Phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi caerulescens and Bladder campion for zinc- and cadmium contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 23:1151–1157Google Scholar
  30. Cataldo DA, Garland TR, Wildung RE (1983) Cadmium uptake kinetics in intact soybean plants. Plant Physiol 73:844–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cary EE, Allaway WH, Olson OE (1977) Control of Cr concentrations in food plants. 1. Absorption and translocation of Cr by plants. J Agric Food Chem 25(2):300–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cavallini A, NataliL, Durante M Maserti B (1999) Mercury uptake, distribution and DNA affinity in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants. Sci Total Environ 243/244:119–127Google Scholar
  33. Cervantes C, Campos-Garcia J, Devars S, Gutiérrez-Corona F, Loza-Tavera H, Torres-Guzmàn JC, Moreno-Sànchez R (2001) Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25:335–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chaney RL (1980) Health risks associated with toxic metals in municipal sludge. In: Britton G (ed) Sludge: health risks of land application. Ann Arbor Science Publications, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp 58–83Google Scholar
  35. Chaney RL (1983a) Potential effects of waste constituents on the food chain. In: Parr J, Marsh PB, Kla JM (eds) Land treatment of hazardous wastes. Noyes Data Corporation, New Jersey, pp 152–240Google Scholar
  36. Chaney RL (1983b) Plant uptake of inorganic waste constituents. In: Parr J, Marsh PB, Kla JM. (eds) Land treatment of hazardous wastes. Noyes Data Corporation, New Jersey, pp 50–76Google Scholar
  37. Chatterjee J, Chatterjee C (2000) Phytotoxicity of cobalt, chromium and copper in cauliflower. Environ Pollut 109:69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chang AC, Page AL, Warneke JE (1987) Long-term sludge application on cadmium and zinc accumulation in Swiss chard and radish. J Environ Qual 16:217–221Google Scholar
  39. Chugh LK, Sawhney SK (1999) Photosynthetic activities of Pisum sativum seedlings grown in the presence of cadmium. Plant Physiol Biochem 37(4):297–303Google Scholar
  40. Clarkson DT, Luttage U (1989) Mineral nutrition. Divalent cations, transport and compartmentalization. Prog Bot 51:93–112Google Scholar
  41. Clemens S (2006) Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Biochimie 88:1707–1719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clijsters H, Cuypers A, Vangronsveld J (1999) Physiological responses to heavy metals in plants; defense against oxidative stress. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch 54c:730–734Google Scholar
  43. Crowley DE, Wang YC, Reid CP, Szaniszlo PJ (1991) Mechanisms of iron acquisition from siderophores by microorganisms and plants. Plant Soil 130:179–198Google Scholar
  44. Cunningham SD (1995) In proceedings/abstracts of the fourteenth annual symposium, current topics in plant biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology columbia, April 19–22, pp 47–48Google Scholar
  45. Cunningham SD, Berti WR (1993) Remediation of contaminated soils with green plants: An overview. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 29P:207–212Google Scholar
  46. Dahmani-Muller H, van Oort F, Gelie B, Balabane M (2000) Strategies of heavy metal uptake by three plant species growing near a metal smelter. Environ Pollut 109:231–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Das P, Samantaray S, Rout GR (1997) Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: a review. Environ Pollut 98:29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Davies FT, Puryear JD, Newton RJ, Egilla JN, Grossi JAS (2002) Mycorrhizal fungi increase chromium uptake by sunflower plants: influence on tissue mineral concentration, growth, and gas exchange. J Plant Nutr 25:2389– 407Google Scholar
  49. Deng H, Ye ZH ZH, Wong MH (2006) Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants. Environ Pollut 141:69–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dixit V, Pandey V, Shyam R (2002) Chromium ions inactivate electron transport and enhance superoxide generation in vivo in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad) root mitochondria. Plant Cell Environ 25:687–690Google Scholar
  51. Dong J, Wu F, Zhang G (2005) Effect of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis of tomato seedlings. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 10:974–980Google Scholar
  52. Dražić G, Mihailovič N, Lojić M (2006) Cadmium accumulation in Medicago sativa seedlings treated with salicylic acid. Biol Plant 50:239–244Google Scholar
  53. Du ShH, Fang ShC (1982) Uptake of elemental mercury vapour by C3 and C4 species. Environ Exp Bot 22:437–443Google Scholar
  54. El-Nady FE Atta MM (1996) Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals to some marine biota from the Egyptian coastal waters. J Environ Sci Health A 31(7):1529–1545Google Scholar
  55. Fargaŝvá A (1994) Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52:452–456Google Scholar
  56. Fargaŝvá A (1998) Root growth inhibition, photosynthetic pigments production, and metal accumulation in Sinapis alba as the parameters for trace metals effect determination. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61:762–769Google Scholar
  57. Fiskesjo G (1997) Alium test for screening chemicals; evaluation of cytological parameters. In; Wang W, Gorsuch JW, Hughes JS (eds) Plants for environmental studies. Lewis Publ., Boca Raton, pp 307–333Google Scholar
  58. Foy CD, Chaney RL, White MC (1978) The physiology of metal toxicity in plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 29:511Google Scholar
  59. Fuhrer J (1988) Ethylene biosynthesis and cadmium toxicity in leaf tissue of beans Phaseolus vuglaris L. Plant Physiol 70:162–167Google Scholar
  60. Garbisu C, Alkorta I (2001) Phytoextraction: a cost-effective plant-based technology for the removal of metals from the environment. Biores Technol 77:229–236Google Scholar
  61. Goldbold DL, Huttermann A (1985) Effect of zinc, cadmium and mercury on root elongation of P. abies (Karst) seedling and the significance of these metals to forest dieback. Environ Pollut 38:375–381Google Scholar
  62. Golovatyj SE, Bogatyreva EN, Golovatyi SE (1999) Effect of levels of chromium content in a soil on its distribution in organs of corn plants. Soil Res Fert 197–204Google Scholar
  63. Greger M (1997) Willow as phytoremediator of heavy metal contaminated soil. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on element cycling in the environment. Warsaw, pp 167–172Google Scholar
  64. Greger M, Brammer E, Lindberg S, Larson G, Ildestan-Almquist J (1991) Uptake and physiological effects of cadmium in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) related to mineral provision. J Exp Bot 42:729–737Google Scholar
  65. Guliev NM, Bairamov SM, Aliev DA (1992) Functional organization of carbonic anhydrae in higher plants. Sov Plant Physiol 39:537–544Google Scholar
  66. Gupta S, Nayek S, Saha N, Satpati S (2008) Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory. Environ Geol 55:731–739Google Scholar
  67. Gwozdz EA, Przymusinski R, Rucinska R, Deckert J (1997) Plant cell responses to heavy metals molecular and physiological aspects. Acta Physiol Plant 19:459–65Google Scholar
  68. Hagemeyer J, Breckle SW (1996) Growth under trace element stress. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant root: the hidden half, 2nd edn. Dekker, New York, pp 415–433Google Scholar
  69. Hagemeyer J, Breckle SW (2002) Trace element stresses in roots. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkafi U (eds) Plant root: the hidden half, 3rd edn. Decker, New York, pp 763–785Google Scholar
  70. Haghiri FE (1974) Plant uptake of cadmium as influenced by cation exchange capacity, organic matter, zinc and soil temperature. J Environ Qual 3:180–183Google Scholar
  71. Han FX, Maruthi SBB, Monts DL, Su Y (2004) Phytoavailability and toxicity of trivalent and hexavalent chromium to Brassica juncea. New Phytol 162:489–499Google Scholar
  72. Han YL, Yuan HY, Huang SZ, Guo Z, Xia B, Gu J (2007) Cadmium tolerance and accumulation by two species of Iris. Ecotoxicology 16:557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hanus J, Tomas J (1993) An investigation of chromium content and its uptake from soil in white mustard. Acta Fytotech 48:39–47Google Scholar
  74. Hegedüs A, Erdei S, Janda T, Toth E, Horvath G, Dubits D (2004) Transgenic tobacco plants over producing alfafa aldose/aldehyde reductase show higher tolerance to low temperature and cadmium stress. Plant Sci 166:1329–1333Google Scholar
  75. Henry JR (2000) In an overview of phytoremediation of lead and mercury. NNEMS Report Washington, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  76. Hernández LE, Carpena-Rutz R, Garate A (1996) Alterations in the mineral nutrition of pea seedlings exposed to cadmium. J Plant Nutr 19:1581–1598Google Scholar
  77. Hirsch RE, Lewis BD, Spalding EP, Sussman MR (1998) A role for the AKT1 potassium channel in plant nutrition. Science 280:918–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jain R, Srivastava S, Madan VK, Jain R (2000) Influence of chromium on growth and cell division of sugarcane. Indian J Plant Physiol 5:228–231Google Scholar
  79. Joseph GW, Merrilee RA, Raymond E (1995) Comparative toxicities of six heavy metals using root elongation and shoot growth in three plant species. The symposium on environmental toxicology and risk assessment, Atlanta, pp 26–9Google Scholar
  80. Karunyal S, Renuga G, Paliwal K (1994) Effects of tannery effluent on seed germination, leaf area, biomass and mineral content of some plants. Bioresour Technol 47:215–218Google Scholar
  81. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  82. Kinnersely AM (1993) The role of Phytochelates in plant growth and productivity. Plant Grow Regul 12:207–217Google Scholar
  83. Kirkham MB (2006) Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Geoderma 137:19–32Google Scholar
  84. Krishnamurthy S, Wilkens MM (1994) Environmental chemistry of Cr. Northeastern Geol 16(1):14–17Google Scholar
  85. Khale H (1993) Response of roots of trees to heavy metals. Environ Exp Bot 33:99–119Google Scholar
  86. Khan S, Ullah SM, Sarwar KS (2001) Interaction of chromium and copper with nutrient elements in rice (Oryza sativa cv BR-11). Bull Inst Trop Agric Kyushu Univ 23:35–9Google Scholar
  87. Kneer R, Zenk MH (1992) Phytochelatins protect plant enzymes from heavy metal poisoning. Phytochemistry 31:2663Google Scholar
  88. Kocik K, Ilavsky J (1994) Effect of Sr and Cr on the quantity and quality of the biomass of field crops. Production and utilization of agricultural and forest biomass for energy: Proceedings of a seminar held at Zvolen, Slovakia, pp 168–78Google Scholar
  89. Kopyra M, Gwόźdź EA (2004) The role of nitric oxide in plant growth regulation and responses to abiotic stresses. Acta Physiol Plant 26:459–472Google Scholar
  90. Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic Press, San Diego, p 495Google Scholar
  91. Krupa Z, Baszynski T (1995) Some aspects of heavy metals toxicity towards photosynthetic apparatus – Direct and indirect effects on light and dark reactions. Acta Physiol Plant 17:177–190Google Scholar
  92. Kumar P, Dushenkov V, Motto H, Raskin I (1995) Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environ Sci Technol 29:1232–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Le Faucheur S, Schildknecht F, Behra R, Sigg L (2006) Thiols in Scenedesmus vacuolatus upon exposure to metals and metalloids. Aquat Toxicol 80:355–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lindberg SE, Meyers TP, Taylor Jr GE, Turner RR, Schroeder WH (1992) Atmosphere-surface exchange of mercury in a forest: results of modeling and gradient approached. J Geophys Res 97:2519–2528Google Scholar
  95. Linger P, Ostwald A, Haensler J (2005) Cannabis sativa L. growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: growth, cadmium uptake and photosynthesis. Biol Plant 49(4):567–576Google Scholar
  96. Liphadzi MS, Kirkham MB (2006) Chelate-assisted heavy metal removal by sunflower to improve soil with sludge. J Crop Improv 16:153–172Google Scholar
  97. Liu DH, Jiang WS, Gao XZ (2003/2004). Effects of cadmium on root growth, cell division and nucleoli in root tip cells of garlic. Biol Plant 47(1):79–83Google Scholar
  98. Liu DH, Wang M, Zou JH, Jiang WS (2006) Uptake and accumulation of cadmium and some nutrient ions by roots and shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Pak J Bot 38(3):701–709Google Scholar
  99. Logan TJ, Chaney RL (1983) Metals. In: Page AL (ed) Utilization of municipal wastewater and sludge on land. University of California, Riverside, pp 235–326Google Scholar
  100. Lombi E, Zhao FJ, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2001) Phytoremediation of heavy metal, contaminated soils, natural hyperaccumulation versus chemically enhanced phytoextraction. J Environ Qual 30:1919–1926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lunáčková L, Masarovičová E, Kráľová K, Streško V (2003) Response of fast growing woody plants from family Salicaceae to cadmium treatment. B Environ Contam Toxicol 70:576–585Google Scholar
  102. Maksymiec W, Baszyński T (1996) Different susceptibility of runner bean plants to excess copper as a function of growth stages of primary leaves. J Plant Physiol 149:217–221Google Scholar
  103. Maksymiec W, Baszyński T (1988) The effect of Cd2+ on the release of proteins from thylakoid membranes of tomato leaves. Acta Soc Bot Pol 57:465–474Google Scholar
  104. Ma LQ, Komar KM, Kennelley ED (2001) Methods for removing pollutants from contaminated soil materials with a fern plant. Document type and number: United States Patent 6280500. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6280500.html
  105. Mahmood T, Islam KR, Muhammad S (2007) Toxic effects of heavy metals on early growth and tolerance of cereal crops. Pak J Bot 39(2):451–462Google Scholar
  106. Markert B (1993) Plants as Biomonitors-Indicators of Heavy Metals in the Terrestrial Environment. VCH Publishers, Germany, p 644Google Scholar
  107. Mathys W (1975) Enzymes of heavy metal resistant and non-resistant populations of Silene cucubalus and their interactions with some heavy metals in vitro and in vivo. Physiol Plant 33:161–165Google Scholar
  108. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  109. Martin HW, Kaplan DI (1998) Temporal changes in cadmium, thallium and vanadium mobility in soil and phytoavailability under field conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 101:399–410Google Scholar
  110. McGrath SP (1995) Chromium and nickel. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metal in soils, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, Great Britain, pp 152–178Google Scholar
  111. McGrath SW, Zhao FJ, Lombi E (2001) Plant and rhizosphere processes involved in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Plant Soil 232:207–214Google Scholar
  112. Mokgalaka-Matlala NS, Flores-Tavizön E, Castillo-Michel H, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2008) Toxicity of arsenic (III) and (V) on plant growth, element uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x p. velutina). Int J Phytoremed 10:47–60Google Scholar
  113. Misra SG, Mani D (1991) Soil pollution. Ashish Publishing House, 8/81, Punjabi BaghGoogle Scholar
  114. Montes-Holguin MO, Peralta-Videa JR, Meitzner G, Martinez A, Rosa G, Castillo-Michel H, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2006) Biochemical and spectroscopic studies of the response of Convolvulus arvensis L. to chromium (III) and chromium (VI) stress. Environ Toxicol Chem 25(1):220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Moral R, Pedreno JN, Gomez I, Mataix J (1995) Effects of chromium on the nutrient element content and morphology of tomato. J Plant Nutr 18:815–822Google Scholar
  116. Moral R, Gomez I, Pedreno JN, Mataix J (1996) Absorption of Cr and effects on micronutrient content in tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum M). Agrochimica 40:132–138Google Scholar
  117. Moreno JL, Hernandez T, Garcia C (1999) Effects of a cadmium-containing sewage sludge compost on dynamics of organic matter and microbial activity in an arid soils. Biol Fert Soils 28:230–237Google Scholar
  118. Moya JL, Ros R, Picazo I (1993) Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth, net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution on rice plants. Photosynth Res 36:75–80Google Scholar
  119. McGrath SP (1982) The uptake and translocation of tri- and hexavalent chromium and effects on the growth of oat in flowing nutrient solution and in soil. New Phytol 92:381–390Google Scholar
  120. Nichols PB, Couch JD, Al Hamdani SH (2000) Selected physiological responses of Salvinia minima to different chromium concentrations. Aquat Bot 68:313– 319Google Scholar
  121. Nordberg G (2003) Cadmium and human health: a perspective based on recent studies in China. J Trace Elem Exp Med 16:307–319Google Scholar
  122. Nussbaum S, Schmutz D, Brunold C (1988) Regulation of assimimilatory sulfate reduction by cadmium in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol 88:1407–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Odjegba VJ, Fasidi IO (2004) Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: Implications for phytoremediation. Ecotoxicology 13:637–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ozturk M, Yucel E, Gucel S, Sakcali S, Aksoy A (2008) Plants as biomonitors of trace elements pollution in soil. In: Prasad MNV (eds) Trace elements: environmental contamination, nutritional benefits and health implications, Chap. 28, Wiley, New York, pp 723–744Google Scholar
  125. Päivöke AEA, Simola LK (2001) Arsenate toxicity to Pisum sativum: Mineral nutrients, chlorophyll content and phytase activity. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 49:111–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Parr PD, Taylor FG Jr. (1982) Germination and growth effects of hexavalent chromium in Orocol TL (a corrosion inhibitor) on Phaseolus vulgaris. Environ Int 7:197–202Google Scholar
  127. Panda SK, Patra HK (2000) Nitrate and ammonium ions effect on the chromium toxicity in developing wheat seedlings. Proc Natl Acad Sci India B, 70:75–80Google Scholar
  128. Pandey V, Dixit V, Shyam R (2005) Antioxidative responses in elation to growth of mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan) plants exposed to hexavalent chromium. Chemosphere 61:40–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Pedreno NJI, Gomez R, Moral G, Palacios J, Mataix J (1997) Heavy metals and plant nutrition and development. Recent Res Dev Phytochem 1:173–179Google Scholar
  130. Peralta JR, Torresdey JLG, Tiemann KJ, Gomez E, Arteaga S, Rascon E (2001) Uptake and effects of five heavy metals on seed germination and plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) L. B Environ Contam Toxicol 66:727–734Google Scholar
  131. Peralta-Videa JR, de la Rosa G, Gonzalez JH, Gardea-Torresdey JL 2004. Effect of the growth stage on the heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa plants. Adv Environ Res 8:679–685Google Scholar
  132. Piechalak A, Tomaszewaska B, Baralkiewisz D (2002) Accumulation and detoxification of lead ion in legumes. Phytochemistry 60:153–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Piechalak A, Tomaszewska B, Baralkiewicz D (2003) Enhancing phytoremediative ability of Pisum sativum by EDTA application. Phytochemistry 4:1239–1251Google Scholar
  134. Pinto AP, Mota AM, de Varennes A, Pinto FC (2004) Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants. Sci Tot Environ 326:239–247Google Scholar
  135. Poschenrieder CH, Gunse B, Barcelo J (1989) Influence of cadmium on water relations, stomatal resistance and abscisic acid content in expanding bean leaves. Plant Physiol 90:1365–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Poschenrieder C, Vazquez MD, Bonet A, Barcelo J (1991) Chromium-III-iron interaction in iron sufficient and iron deficient bean plants. 2. Ultrastructural aspects. J Plant Nutr 14(4): 415–428Google Scholar
  137. Prasad MNV (1995) Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp Bot 35: 525–540Google Scholar
  138. Prasad MNV (1997) Trace metals. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Plant ecophysiology. Willey, New York, pp 207–249Google Scholar
  139. Prasad MNV (2008) Trace Elements as Contaminants and Nutrients: Consequences in Ecosystems and Human Health. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  140. Prasad MNV, Greger M, Landberg T (2001) Acacia nilotica L. bark removes toxic elements from solution: corroboration from toxicity bioassay using Salix viminalis L. in hydroponic system. Int J Phytoremed 3:289–300Google Scholar
  141. Pulford ID, Watson C (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees- a review. Environ Int 29:529–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Punz WF Sieghardt H (1993) The response of roots of herbaceous plant species to heavy metals. Environ Exp Bot 33:85–86Google Scholar
  143. Qureshi MI, Israr M, Abdin MZ Iqbal M (2005) Responses of Artemisia annua L. to lead and salt induced oxidative stress. Environ Exp Bot 53:185–193Google Scholar
  144. Rai UN, Chandra P (1992) Accumulation of copper, lead, manganese and iron by field populations of Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerheim. Sci Total Environ 116:203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rai D, Sass BM, Moore DA (1987) Cr(III) hydrolysis constants and solubility of Cr(III) hydroxide. Inorg Chem 26:345–349Google Scholar
  146. Rai D, Eary LE, Zachara JM (1989) Environmental chemistry of chromium. Sci Total Environ 86:15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Rai UN, Tripathi RD, Sinha S, Chandra P (1995) Chromium and cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle and Chara corallina Wildenow. J Environ Sci Health A 30(3):537–551Google Scholar
  148. Raskin I, Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov S, Salt DE (1994) Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 5:285–290Google Scholar
  149. Raskin I, Smith RD, Salt DE (1997) Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Ramos I, Esteban E, Lucena JJ Garate A (2002) Cadmium uptake and subcellular distribution in plants of Lactuca sp. Cd–Mn interaction. Plant Sci 162:761–767Google Scholar
  151. Reeves RD, Baker AJM (2000) Phytoremediation of toxic metals. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD (eds) Using plants to clean up the environment. Wiley, New York, p 193Google Scholar
  152. Rivetta A, Negrini N, Cocucci M (1997) Involvement of Ca2+- calmodulin in Cd2+ toxicity during the early phases of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed germination. Plant Cell Environ 20: 600–608Google Scholar
  153. Rocchetta I, Mazzuca M, Conforti V, Ruiz L, Balzaretti V, Rı´os deMolina MC (2006) Effect of chromium on the fatty acid composition of two strains of Euglena gracilis. Environ Poll 141:353–358Google Scholar
  154. Root RA, Miller RJ, Koeppe DE (1975) Uptake of cadmium -its toxicity and effect on the iron-to- zinc ratio in hydroponically grown corn. J Environ Qual 4:473–476Google Scholar
  155. Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P (1997) Differential chromium tolerance among eight mungbean cultivars grown in nutrient culture. J Plant Nutr 20:473–483Google Scholar
  156. Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P (1999) Chromium, nickel and zinc tolerance in Leucaena leucocephala (K8). Silvae Genet 48:151–157Google Scholar
  157. Rout GR, Sanghamitra S, Das P (2000) Effects of chromium and nickel on germination and growth in tolerant and non-tolerant populations of Echinochloa colona (L). Chemosphere 40:855–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P (2001) Differential lead tolerance of rice and black gram genotypes in hydroponic culture. Rost. Výroba (Praha) 47:541–548Google Scholar
  159. Samantaray S, Rout GR, Das P (2001) Induction, selection and characterization of Cr and Ni-tolerant cell lines of Echinochloa colona (L) in vitro. J Plant Physiol 158:1281–1290Google Scholar
  160. Salt DE, Prince RC, Pickering IJ, Raskin I (1995) Mechanisms of cadmium mobility and accumulation in Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 109:1427–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Scebba F, Arduini I, Ercoli L, Sebastiani L (2006) Cadmium effects on growth and antioxidant enzymes activities in Miscanthus sinensis. Biol Plant 50:688–692Google Scholar
  162. Seregin IV, Ivanov VB (2001) Physiological aspects of cadmium and lead toxic effects on higher plants. Russian J Plant Physiol 4:523–544Google Scholar
  163. Shafiq M, Iqbal MZ (2005) Tolerance of Peltophorum pterocarpum D. C. Baker Ex K. Heyne seedlings to lead and cadmium treatment. J New Seeds 7:83–94Google Scholar
  164. Shah FR, Ahmad N, Masood KR, Zahid DM (2008) The influence of Cd and Cr on the biomass production of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) seedlings. Pak J Bot 40(4):1341–1348Google Scholar
  165. Shanker AK (2003) Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of chromium toxicity and tolerance in selected crops and tree species. PhD Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  166. Shanker AK, Pathmanabhan G (2004) Speciation dependant antioxidative response in roots and leaves of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench cv CO 27) under Cr(III) and Cr(VI) stress. Plant Soil 265:141–151Google Scholar
  167. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31:739–751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sharma DC, Pant RC (1994) Chromium uptake and its effects on certain plant nutrients in maize (Zea mays L. cv. Ganga 5). J Environ Sci Health A 29:941–948Google Scholar
  169. Sharma DC, Sharma CP (1993) Chromium uptake and its effects on growth and biological yield of wheat. Cereal Res Commun 21:317–321Google Scholar
  170. Sharma DC, Sharma CP (1996) Chromium uptake and toxicity effects on growth and metabolic activities in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. cv. UP 2003. Indian J Exp Biol 34:689–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sharma DC, Chaterjee C, Sharma CP (1995) Chromium accumulation and its effects on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. DH220) metabolism. Plant Sci 111:145–151Google Scholar
  172. Sharma DC, Sharma CP, Tripathi RD (2003) Phytotoxic lesions of chromium in maize. Chemosphere 51:63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Shen ZG, Liu YL (1998) Progress in the study on the plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metal. Plant Physiol Commun 34:133–139Google Scholar
  174. Sheoran IS, Singal HR, Singh R (1990) Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). Photosynth Res 23:345–351Google Scholar
  175. Shewry PR, Peterson PJ (1974) The uptake and transport of chromium by barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Exp Bot 25:785–797Google Scholar
  176. Shukla OP, Rai UN, Pal A (2005) Accumulation of chromium and its phytotoxic effects on Bacopa monnieri L. J Ecophysiol Occup Health 5:165–169Google Scholar
  177. Shukla OP, Dubey S, Rai UN (2007) Preferential accumulation of cadmium and chromium: Toxicity in Bacopa monnieri L. under mixed metal treatments. B Environ Contam Toxicol 78:252–257Google Scholar
  178. Siedlecka A, Baszynski T (1993) Inhibition of electron transport flow around photosystem I in chloroplasts of Cd-treated maize plants is due to Cd-induced iron deficiency. Physiol Plant 87:199–202Google Scholar
  179. Singh AK (2001) Effect of trivalent and hexavalent chromium on spinach (Spinacea oleracea L). Environ Ecol 19:807–810Google Scholar
  180. Singh S, Eapen S, D’Souza SF (2006) Cadmium accumulation and its influence on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in an aquatic plant, Bacopa monnieri L. Chemosphere 62:233–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Skeffington RA, Shewry PR, Peterson PJ (1976) Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.). Planta 132:209–214Google Scholar
  182. Skόrzyńska-Polit E, Baszynski T (1995) Photochemical activity of primary leaves in cadmium stressed Phaseolus coccineus depends on their growth stages. Acta Soc Bot Pol 64:273–279Google Scholar
  183. Skόrzyńska-Polit E, Baszynski T (1997) Difference in sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cd-stressed runner bean plants in relation to their age. Plant Sci 128:11–21Google Scholar
  184. Skόrzyńska-Polit E, Tukendorf A, Selstam E, Baszyński T (1998) Calcium modifies Cd effect on runner bean plants. Environ Exp Bot 40:275–286Google Scholar
  185. Stephens WE, Calder A (2005) Source and health implications of high toxic metal concentrations in illicit tobacco products. Environ Sci Technol 39:479–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Šimonova E, Imonová M, Henselová M, Masarovičová E, Kohanová J (2007) Comparison of tolerance of Brassica juncea and Vigna radiata to cadmium. Biol Plant 51(3):488–492Google Scholar
  187. Singh S, Sinha S (2004) Scanning electron microscopic studies and growth response of the plants of Helianthus annuus L. grown on tannery sludge amended soil. Environ Int 30:389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Stiborova M, Doubravova M, Leblova S (1986) A comparative study of the effect of heavy metal ions on ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and phosphoenol pyruvate caroboxylase. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 181:373–379Google Scholar
  189. Sujatha P, Gupta A (1996) Tannery effluent characteristics and its effects on agriculture. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monit 6:45–48Google Scholar
  190. Talanova VV, Titov AF, Boeva NP (2001) Effect of increasing concentrations of heavy metals on the growth of barley and wheat seedlings. Russian J Plant Physiol 48:100–103Google Scholar
  191. Tester M, Leigh RA (2001) Partitioning of nutrient transport processes in roots. J Exp Bot 52: 445–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Tokalioglu S, Kartal S (2006) Statistical evaluation of the bioavailability of heavy metals from contaminated soil to vegetables. B Environ Contam Toxicol 76:311–319Google Scholar
  193. Tripathi AK, Sadhna T, Tripathi S (1999) Changes in some physiological and biochemical characters in Albizia lebbek as bio-indicators of heavy metal toxicity. J Environ Biol 20:93–98Google Scholar
  194. Tu C, Ma LQ (2005) Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperacumulator Pteris vittata L. Environ Pollut 135:333–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Turner AP, Dickinson NM (1993) Survival of Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore) seedlings on metalliferous soils, New Phytol 123:509Google Scholar
  196. Turner MA, Rust RH (1971) Effects of Cr on growth and mineral nutrition of soybeans. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35:755–758Google Scholar
  197. Turner JG, Ch E, Devoto A (2002) The jasmonate signal pathway. Plant Cell 14 (Suppl):153–164Google Scholar
  198. Vajpayee P, Sharma SC, Tripathi RD, Rai UN, Yunus M (1999) Bioaccumulation of chromium and toxicity to photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Chemosphere 39:2159–2169Google Scholar
  199. Vajpayee P, Tripathi RD, Rai UN, Ali MB, Singh SN (2000) Chromium (VI) accumulation reduces chlorophyll biosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and protein content in Nymphaea alba L. Chemosphere 41:1075–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Vajpayee P, Rai UN, Ali MB, Tripathi RD, Yadav V, Sinha S (2001) Chromium induced physiological changes in Vallisneria spiralis L and its role in phytoremediation of tannery effluent. B Environ Contam Toxicol 67(2):246–256Google Scholar
  201. Van Assche F, Clijsters H (1983) Multiple effects of heavy metals on photosynthesis. In: Marcelle R (ed) Effects of Stress on Photosynthesis. The Hague: Nijhoff/Junk. pp 371–382Google Scholar
  202. Van Assche F, Clijsters H (1990) Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 13:195–206Google Scholar
  203. Vassilev A, Yordanov I, Tsonev T (1997) Effects of Cd2+ on the physiological state and photosynthetic activity of young barley plants. Photosynthetica 34:293–302Google Scholar
  204. Vassilev A, Lidon F, Scotti P, Da Graca M, Yordanov I (2004) Cadmium-induced changes in chloroplast lipids and photosystem activities in barley plants. Biol Plant 48:153–156Google Scholar
  205. Vazques MD, Poschenrieder C, Barcelo J (1987) Chromium (VI) induced structural changes in bush bean plants. Ann Bot 59:427–438Google Scholar
  206. Verloo M, Eeckhout M (1990) Metal species transformations in soil: an analytical approach. Int J Environ Anal Chem 39:170–186Google Scholar
  207. Verma P, Georges KV, Singh HV, Singh RN (2007) Modeling cadmium accumulation in radish, carrot, spinach and cabbage. Appl Math Model 31:1652–1661Google Scholar
  208. Vernay P, Gauthier-Moussard C, Hitmi A (2007) Interaction of bioaccumulation of heavy metal chromium with water relation, mineral nutrition and photosynthesis in developed leaves of Lolium perenne L. Chemosphere 68:1563–1575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Vernay P, Gauthier-Moussard C, Jean L, Bordas F, Faure O, Ledoigt G, Hitmi A (2008) Effect of chromium species on phytochemical and physiological parameters in Datura innoxia Chemosphere 72:763–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Wallace A, Soufi SM, Cha JW, Romney EM (1976) Some effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants grown in soil. Plant Soil 44:471–473Google Scholar
  211. Watmough SA (1994) Adaptation to pollution stress in trees: metal tolerance traits, Ph.D. thesis, Liverpool John Moore University, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  212. Wei CY, Chen TB, Huang ZC (2002) Cretan bake (Pteris cretica L): an arsenic accumulating plant. Acta Ecol Sin 22:777–782Google Scholar
  213. Williams DE, Vlamis J, Purkite AH, Corey JE (1980) Trace element accumulation movement and distribution in the soil profile from massive applications of sewage sludge. Soil Sci 1292: 119–132Google Scholar
  214. Wong MH, Bradshaw AD (1982) A comparison of the toxicity of heavy metals, using root elongation of rye grass, Lolium perenne. New Phytol 91:255–261Google Scholar
  215. Wójcik M, Tukiendorf A (1999) Cd-tolerance of maize, rye and wheat seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 21:99–107Google Scholar
  216. Wolfgang S (1996) Influence of chromium (III) on root-associated Fe(III) reductase in Plantago lanceolata L. J Exp Bot 47:805–810Google Scholar
  217. Wu FB, Zhang GP (2002) Genotypic variation in kernel heavy metal concentrations in barley and as affected by soil factors. J Plant Nutr 25:1163–1173Google Scholar
  218. Xiong L, Schumaker KS, Zhu JK (2002) Cell signaling during cold, drought and salt stress. Plant Cell 14(Suppl):165–183Google Scholar
  219. Yildiz N (2005) Response of tomato and corn plants to increasing cd levels in nutrient culture. Pak J Bot 37(3):593–599Google Scholar
  220. Zayed AM, Terry N (2003) Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation. Plant Soil 249:139–156Google Scholar
  221. Zeid IM (2001) Responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to chromium and cobalt treatments. Biol Plant 44:111–115Google Scholar
  222. Zhang GP, Fukami M, Sekimoto H (2002) Influence of cadmium on mineral concentration and yield components in wheat genotypes differing in Cd tolerance at seedling stage. Field Crop Res 4079:1–7Google Scholar
  223. Zurayk R, Sukkariyah B, Baalbaki R (2001) Common hydrophytes as bioindicators of nickel, chromium and cadmium pollution. Water Air Soil Poll 127:373–388Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geology, University of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations