Advertisement

Validation

  • Chris M. Roelfsema
  • Stuart R. Phinn
Chapter

Abstract

Adequate understanding of the validity of information contained in coral reef remote sensing products is required to support research and management decisions. This chapter introduces accuracy measures commonly applied to two types of coral related maps: discrete (e.g., benthic cover type) and continuous (e.g., percent coral cover). A critical review of 80 coral reef remote sensing mapping publications presents the approaches and metrics commonly used to measure accuracy. The literature review shows that few studies report accuracy information at all, and when obtained, ‘overall accuracy’ was the most commonly used accuracy measure. Variations in accuracy levels were not only a result of actual differences in map accuracy, but are likely also due to: spatial complexity of benthic features present in the study area; distribution of the calibration and validation samples relative to each other; and the level of detail measured for each sample. As a result, accuracy measures from different studies should be compared with caution and with due attention to how the measures were derived. This chapter enables scientist and managers to understand, design and interpret validation procedures for image-based maps of coral reef environments.

Keywords

Coral Reef Great Barrier Reef Accuracy Assessment Error Matrix Coral Reef Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded through ARC Discovery Project—Innovative Coral Reef Mapping, University of Queensland, University of South Pacific, World Bank GEF Coral Reef Target Research—Remote Sensing working group, South Pacific Applied Geoscience Committee, Coral Cay Conservation, and Coral Reef Initiative for the Pacific. Bill Aalbersberg, James Comley and Leon Zann for their support and assistance. The fourteen participants of the map user assessment. Assitance from D. Kleine and the people Navakavu and Dravuni Qoliqoli.

Suggested Reading

  1. Andréfouët S (2008a) Coral reef habitat mapping using remote sensing: a user versus producer perspective. Implications for research, management and capacity building. J Spatial Sci 53(1):113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Congalton RG, Green K (1999) Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices. Boca Rotan FL, Lewis Publishers, p 137Google Scholar
  3. Foody GM (2011) Classification accuracy assessment. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Soc Newsl, 8–13Google Scholar
  4. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR (2010a) Integrating field data with high spatial resolution multispectral satellite imagery for calibration and validation of coral reef benthic community maps. J Appl Remote Sens 4:043527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR (2008) Evaluating eight field and remote sensing approaches for mapping the benthos of three different coral reef environments in Fiji. In: proceedings of SPIE Asia Pacific remote sensing conference—remote sensing of inlands, coastal and oceanic water, Noumea, New Caledonia, 7150:17–21 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  6. Stehman SV (2001a) Statistical rigor and practical utility in thematic map accuracy assessment. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 67(6):727–734Google Scholar

References

  1. Ackleson SG, Klemas V (1987) Remote-sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay—a comparison of landsat MSS to TM imagery. Remote Sens Environ 22(2):235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad W, Neil DT (1994) An evaluation of landsat-thematic-mapper (Tm) digital data for discriminating coral-reef zonation—heron-reef (GBR). Int J Remote Sens 15(13):2583–2597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitken J, Ramnath V, Feygels V, Mathur A, Kim M, Park JY, Tuell G (2010) Prelude to CZMIL: seafloor imaging and classification results achieved with charts and the rapid environmental assessment (REA) processor. Algorithms and technologies for multispectral, hyperspectral, and ultraspectral imagery Xvi. SS Shen and PE Lewis. Bellingham, Spie-Int Soc Opt Eng, 7695Google Scholar
  4. Alexander D (2008) Remote sensing and the coast: development of advanced techniques to map nuisance macro-algae in estuaries. New Zealand Geographer, 64(2):157–161Google Scholar
  5. Andréfouët S, Dirberg G (2006) Cartographie et inventaire du système récifalde Wallis, Futuna et Alofi par imagerie satellitaire Landsat 7 ETM+ et orthophotographies aériennes à haute résolution. In Report Conventions: Sci Mer Biol, Noumea. p 53Google Scholar
  6. Andréfouët S, Guzman HM (2005) Coral reef distribution, status and geomorphology-biodiversity relationship in Kuna Yala (San Blas) archipelago, Caribbean Panama. Coral Reefs 24(1):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andréfouët S, Kramer P, Torres-Pulliza D, Joyce KE, Hochberg EJ, Garza-Perez R, Mumby PJ, Riegl B, Yamano H, White WH, Zubia M, Brock JC, Phinn SR, Naseer A, Hatcher BG, Muller-Karger FE (2003) Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical coral reef environments. Remote Sens Environ 88(1–2):128–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andréfouët S, Muller-Karger FE, Chevillon C, Brock JC, Hu C (2005) Global assessment of modern coral reef extent and diversity for regional science and management applications: a view from space. In 10th International coral reef symposium, Okinawa, Japan: Internat Coral Reef Soc, pp 1732–1745Google Scholar
  9. Andréfouët S, Zubia M, Payri C (2004) Mapping and biomass estimation of the invasive brown algae Turbinaria ornata (Turner). Agardh and Sargassum mangarevense (Grunow) setchell on heterogeneous tahitian coral reefs using 4 m resolution IKONOS satellite data. Coral Reefs 23(1):26–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andréfouët S, Hochberg EJ, Chevillon C, Muller-Karger FE, Brock JC, Hu C (2005) Multi-scale remote sensing of coral reefs. Remote sensing of coastal aquatic environments: technologies, techniques and applications. In: RL Miller, CE Del Castillo, BA McKee, Springer, pp 299–317Google Scholar
  11. Andréfouët S (2008b) Coral reef habitat mapping using remote sensing: a user versus producer perspective. Implications for research, management and capacity building. J Spatial Sci 53(1):113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Armstrong RA (1993) Remote sensing of submerged vegetation canopies for biomass estimation. Int J Remote Sens 14(3):621–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aswani S, Lauer M (2006) Benthic mapping using local aerial photo interpretation and resident taxa inventories for designing marine protected areas. Environ Conserv 33(3):263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bailey SW, Werdell PJ (2006) A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products. Remote Sens Environ 102(1–2):12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bainbridge SJ, Reichelt RE (1998) An assessment of ground truth methods for coral reef remote sensing data. In: Proceedings of the 6th international coral reef symposium, Townsville, p 439–444Google Scholar
  16. Benfield SL, Guzman HM, Mair JM, Young JAT (2007) Mapping the distribution of coral reefs and associated sublittoral habitats in Pacific Panama: a comparison of optical satellite sensors and classification methodologies. Int J Remote Sens 28(22):5047–5070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benton AR, Newman JRM (1976) Color aerial photography for aquatic plant monitoring. J Aquat Plant Manage 14:14–16Google Scholar
  18. Bertels L, Vanderstraete T, Coillie V, Knaeps E, Sterckx S, Goossens R, Deronde B (2008) Mapping of coral reefs using hyperspectral CASI data; a case study: Fordata, Tanimbar. Indonesial Internat J Remote Sens 29(8):2359–2391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouvet G, Ferraris J, Andréfouët S (2003) Evaluation of large-scale unsupervised classification of New Caledonia reef ecosystems using landsat 7 ETM+ imagery. Oceanolog Acta 26(3):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruce EM (1997) Application of spatial analysis to coastal and marine management in the shark bay world heritage area. Ph.D, University of Western Australia, Western Australia PerthGoogle Scholar
  21. Call KA, Hardy JT, Wallin DO (2003) Coral reef habitat discrimination using multivariate spectral analysis and satellite remote sensing. Int J Remote Sens 24(13):2627–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell JW, Blaisdell JM, Darzi M (1995) Level-3 seaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms. NASA Tech Memo 104566, Hooker SB, Firestone ER, JG Acker. Greenbelt Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, p 32Google Scholar
  23. Capolsini P, Andréfouët S, Rion C, Payri C (2003) A comparison of landsat ETM+, SPOT HRV, ikonos, ASTER, and airborne MASTER data for coral reef habitat mapping in South Pacific Islands. Can J Remote Sens 29(2):187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cassata L, Collins LB (2008) Coral reef communities, habitats, and substrates in and near sanctuary zones of Ningaloo Marine Park. J Coastal Res 24(1):139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chauvaud S, Bouchon C, Maniere R (2001) Thematic mapping of tropical marine communities (coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves) using SPOT data in Guadeloupe Island. Oceanolog Acta 24:S3–S16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chauvaud S, Bouchon C, Maniere R (1998) Remote sensing techniques adapted to high resolution mapping of tropical coastal marine ecosystems (coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves). Int J Remote Sens 19(18):3625–3639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Congalton RG, Mead RA (1983) A quantitative method to test for consistency and correctness in photo interpretation. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 49(1):69–74Google Scholar
  28. Congalton RG (1991) A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data. Remote Sens Environ 37:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Congalton RG, Green K (1999) Assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data: principles and practices. Lewis Publishers, Boca Rotan, p 137Google Scholar
  30. Cuevas-Jimenez A, Ardisson PL (2002) Mapping shallow coral reefs by colour aerial photography. Int J Remote Sens 23(18):369–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dahdouh-Guebas F, Coppejans E, Van Speybroeck D (1999) Remote sensing and zonation of seagrasses and algae along the Kenyan coast. Hydrobiologia 400:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dekker AG, Brando VE, Anstee JM (2005) Retrospective seagrass change detection in a shallow coastal tidal Australian lake. Remote Sens Environ 97(4):415–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dierssen HM, Zimmerman RC, Leathers RA, Downes TV, Davis CO (2003) Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas banks by high-resolution airborne imagery. Limnol Oceanogr 48(1):444–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fargion GS, BA Franz, Kwiatkowska E, Pietras C (2004) SIMBIOS program in support of ocean color missions: 1997–2003. Ocean remote sensing and imaging: II. In: Proceedings SPIE, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  35. Fitzpatrick-Lins K (1981) Comparison of sampling procedures and data-analysis for a land-use and land-cover map. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 47(3):343–351Google Scholar
  36. Foody GM (2002) Status of land cover classification accuracy assessment. Remote Sens Environ 80:185–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Foody GM (2011) Classification accuracy assessment. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Soc Newsl, 8–13Google Scholar
  38. Fornes A, Basterretxea G, Orfila A, Jordi A, Alvarez A, Tintore J (2006) Mapping Posidonia oceanica from IKONOS. J Photogrammetry Remote Sens 60(5):315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Franklin EC, Ault JS, Smith SG, Luo J, Meester GA, Diaz GA, Chiappone M, Swanson DW, Miller SL, Bohnsack JA (2003) Benthic habitat mapping in the Tortugas region, Florida. Mar Geodesy 26:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fritz S, McCallum E, Schill C, Perger C, Grillmayer R, Achard F, Kraxner F, Obersteiner M (2009) Geo-Wiki.Org: the use of crowdsourcing to improve global land cover. Remote Sens Environ 1:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garza-Perez JR, Lehmann A, Arias-Gonzalez JE (2004) Spatial prediction of coral reef habitats: integrating ecology with spatial modeling and remote sensing. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 269:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goodman J, Ustin SL (2007) Classification of benthic composition in a coral reef environment using spectral unmixing. J Appl Remote Sens, p 17Google Scholar
  43. Green EP, Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Clark CD (2000) Remote sensing handbook for tropical coastal management. Paris, UNESCO, 316Google Scholar
  44. Gregg WW, Casey NW (2004) Global and regional evaluation of the seawifs chlorophyll data set. Remote Sens Environ 93(4):463–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gullstrom M, Lunden B, Bodin M, Kangwe J, Ohman MC, Mtolera MSP, Bjork M (2006) Assessment of changes in the seagrass-dominated submerged vegetation of tropical Chwaka Bay (Zanzibar) using satellite remote sensing. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 67(3):399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gustafson EJ (1998) Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: what is the state of the art? Ecosyst 1(2):143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Habeeb RL, Johnson CR, Wotherspoon S, Mumby PJ (2007) Optimal scales to observe habitat dynamics: a coral reef example. Ecol Appl 17(3):641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hatcher BG (1997) Coral reef ecosystems: how much greater is the whole than the sum of the parts? Coral Reefs 16(5):S77–S91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hochberg EJ, Atkinson MJ (2003) Capabilities of remote sensors to classify coral, algae, and sand as pure and mixed spectra. Remote Sens Environ 85(2):174–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holmes KW, Van Niel KP, Kendrick GA, Radford B (2007) Probabilistic large-area mapping of seagrass species distributions. Aquat Conserv-Mar Freshwater Ecosyst 17(4):385–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Houk P, van Woesik R (2008) Dynamics of shallow-water assemblages in the Saipan Lagoon. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 356:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Isoun E, Fletcher C, Frazer N, Gradie J (2003) Multi-spectral mapping of reef bathymetry and coral cover Kailua Bay. Hawaii Coral Reefs 22(1):68–82Google Scholar
  53. Jensen JR (2005) Introductory digital image processing: a remote sensing perspective, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, p 316Google Scholar
  54. Jordan A, Lawler M, Halley V, Barrett N (2005) Seabed habitat mapping in the Kent Group of islands and its role in marine protected area planning. Aquat Conservat-Mar Freshwater Ecosyst 15(1):51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joyce KE, Phinn SR, Roelfsema CM, Neil DT, Dennison WC (2004) Combining landsat ETM plus and reef check classifications for mapping coral reefs: A critical assessment from the southern Great Barrier Reef. Aust Coral Reefs 23(1):21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jupp DLB, Mayo KK, Kuchler DA, Claasen DVR, Kenchington RA, Cuerin PR (1985) Remote sensing for planning and managing the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Photogrammetria 40:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kendrick GA, Aylward MJ, Hegge BJ, Cambridge ML, Hillman K, Wyllie A, Lord DA (2002) Changes in seagrass coverage in cockburn sound, Western Australia between 1967 and 1999. Aquat Bot 73(1):75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Klonowski WM, Fearns PR, Lynch MJ (2007) Retrieving key benthic cover types and bathymetry from hyper spectral imagery. J Appl Remote Sens p 1Google Scholar
  59. Knudby A, Roelfsema C, Jupiter S, Lyons M, Phinn S (2011) Mapping fish community variables by integrating field and satellite data, object-based image analysis and modeling in a traditional Fijian fisheries management area. Remote Sens 3(3):460–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kutser T, Miller I, Jupp DLB (2006) Mapping coral reef benthic substrates using hyperspectral space-borne images and spectral libraries. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 70(3):449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kvernevik TI, Akhir MZM, Studholme J (2002) A low-cost procedure for automatic seafloor mapping, with particular reference to coral reef conservation in developing nations. Hydrobiologia 474(1–3):67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lathrop RG, Montesano P, Haag S (2006) A multi-scale segmentation approach to mapping seagrass habitats using airborne digital camera imagery. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 72(6):665–675Google Scholar
  63. Lauer M, Aswani S (2008) Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and multi-spectral image classification for marine habitat mapping in Oceania. Ocean Coast Manag 51(6):495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lennon P, Luck P (1989) Seagrass mapping using landsat tm data. In: Asian conference on remote sensing. Asian association on remote sensing, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  65. Lesser MP, Mobley CD (2007) Bathymetry, water optical properties, and benthic classification of coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. Coral Reefs 26(4):819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis A, Lowe D, Otto J (2003) Remapping the Great Barrier Reef position magazine. South Pacific Science Press International, 46–49Google Scholar
  67. Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW, Chipman JW (2008) Remote sensing and image interpretation. Wiley, Danvers, p 756Google Scholar
  68. Louchard EM, Reid RP, Stephens FC, Davis CO, Leathers RA, Downes T (2003) Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach. Limnol Oceanogr 48(1):511–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ma ZK, Redmond RL (1995) Tau-coefficients for accuracy assessment of classification of remote-sensing data. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 61(4):435–439Google Scholar
  70. Maeder J, Narumalani S, Rundquist DC, Perk RL, Schalles J, Hutchins K, Keck J (2002) Classifying and mapping general coral-reef structure using Ikonos data. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 68(12):1297–1305Google Scholar
  71. Matarrese A, Mastrototaro G, D’onghia G, Maiorano P, Tursi A (2004) Mapping of the benthic communities in the Taranto Seas using side scan sonar and an underwater video camera. Chem Ecol, 20(5):377–386Google Scholar
  72. Meehan AJ, Williams RJ, Watford FA (2005) Detecting trends in seagrass abundance using aerial photograph interpretation: problems arising with the evolution of mapping methods. Estuaries 28(3):462–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mishra D, Narumalani S, Rundquist D, Lawson M (2006) Benthic habitat mapping in tropical marine environments using QuickBird multispectral data. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 72(9):1037–1048Google Scholar
  74. Moore KA, Wilcox DJ, Orth RJ (2002) Analysis of the abundance of submersed aquatic vegetation communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23(1):115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ (2002) Mapping marine environments with IKONOS imagery: enhanced spatial resolution can deliver greater thematic accuracy. Remote Sens Environ 82(2–3):248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mumby PJ, Green EP, Clark CD, Edwards AJ (1997) Reef habitat assessment using (CASI) airborne remote sensing. In: 8th International coral reef symposium, Panama, pp 1499–1502Google Scholar
  77. Mumby PJ, Green EP, Edwards AJ, Clark CD (1999) The cost-effectiveness of remote sensing for tropical coastal resources assessment and management. J Environ Manage 55(3):157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mumby PJ, Green EP, Clark CD, Edwards AJ (1998) Digital analysis of multispectral airborne imagery of coral reefs. Coral Reefs 17(1):59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murdoch TJT, Glasspool AF, Outerbridge M, Ward J, Manuel S, Gray J, Nash A, Coates KA, Pitt J, Fourqurean JW, Barnes PA, Vierros M, Holzer K, Smith SR (2007) Large-scale decline in offshore seagrass meadows in Bermuda. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 339:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Naseer A, Hatcher BG (2004) Inventory of the Maldives’ coral reefs using morphometrics generated from landsat ETM+ imagery. Coral Reefs 23(1):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Newman CM, Knudby AJ, LeDrew EF (2007) Assessing the effect of management zonation on live coral cover using multi-date IKONOS satellite imagery. J Appl Remote Sens, p 1Google Scholar
  82. Orth RJ, Luckenbach ML, Marion SR, Moore KA, Wilcox DJ (2006) Seagrass recovery in the Delmarva Coastal Bays. USA Aquat Bot 84(1):26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Palandro DA, Andréfouët S, Hu C, Hallock P, Muller-Karger FE, Dustan P, Callahan MK, Kranenburg C, Beaver CR (2008) Quantification of two decades of shallow-water coral reef habitat decline in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary using landsat data (1984–2002). Remote Sens Environ 112(8):3388–3399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Palandro D, Andréfouët S, Dustan P, Muller-Karger FE (2003) Change detection in coral reef communities using Ikonos satellite sensor imagery and historic aerial photographs. Int J Remote Sens 24(4):873–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pasqualini V, Clabaut P, Pergent G, Benyoussef L, Pergent-Martini C (2000) Contributions of side scan sonar to the management of Mediterranean littoral ecosystems. Int J Remote Sens 21(2):367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pasqualini V, Pergent-Martini C, Pergent G, Agreil M, Skoufas G, Sourbes L, Tsirika A (2005) Use of SPOT 5 for mapping seagrasses: an application to Posidonia oceanica. Remote Sens Environ 94(1):39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peneva E, Griffith JA, Carter GA (2008) Seagrass mapping in the northern Gulf of Mexico using airborne hyperspectral imagery: a comparison of classification methods. J Coastal Res 24(4):850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pergent G, Djellouli A, Hamza A, Ettayeb K, El Mansouri A (2002) Characterization of the benthic vegetation in the Farwà Lagoon (Libya). J Coastal Conserv 8(2):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Phinn SR, Roelfsema CM, Dekker A, Brando V, Anstee J (2008) Mapping seagrass species, cover and biomass in shallow waters: an assessment of satellite multi-spectral and airborne hyper-spectral imaging systems in Moreton Bay (Australia). Remote Sens Environ 112:3413–3425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Phinn SR, Roelfsema CM, Stumpf R (2010) Remote sensing: discerning the promise from the reality. In: Longstaff BJ, Carruthers TJB, Dennison WC, Lookingbill TR, Hawkey JM, Thomas JE, Wicks EC, Woerner J (eds) Integrating and applying science: a handbook for effective coastal ecosystem assessment. IAN Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  91. Phinn SR, Roelfsema CR, Mumby P (2012) Multi-scale object based image analysis for mapping coral reef geomorphic and ecological zones. Internat J Remote SensGoogle Scholar
  92. Pittman SJ, Costa BM, Battista TA (2009) Using lidar bathymetry and boosted regression trees to predict the diversity and abundance of fish and corals. J of coast Res 25(6): 27– 38 Google Scholar
  93. Pontius RG Jr, Millones M (2011) Death to kappa: birth of quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment. Int J Remote Sens 32(15):4407–4429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prada MC, Appeldoorn RS, Rivera JA (2008) Improving coral reef habitat mapping of the Puerto Rico insular shelf using side scan sonar. Mar Geodesy 31(1):49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Purkis SJ (2005) A ‘reef-up’ approach to classifying coral habitats from IKONOS imagery. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 43(6):1375–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Purkis SJ, Graham NAJ, Riegl BM (2008) Predictability of reef fish diversity and abundance using remote sensing data in Diego Garcia (Chagos Archipelago). Coral Reefs 27(1):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Purkis SJ, Riegl B (2005) Spatial and temporal dynamics of Arabian Gulf coral assemblages quantified from remote-sensing and in situ monitoring data. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 287:99–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Riegl BM, Moyer RP, Morris L, Virnstein R, Dodge RE (2005) Determination of the distribution of shallow-water seagrass and drift algae communities with acoustic seafloor discrimination. Rev Biol Trop 53:165–174Google Scholar
  99. Riegl BM, Purkis SJ (2005) Detection of shallow subtidal corals from IKONOS satellite and QTC View (50, 200 kHz) single-beam sonar data (Arabian Gulf; Dubai, UAE). Remote Sens Environ 95(1):96–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Roelfsema CM, Dennison WC, Phinn SR (2002) Spatial distribution of benthic microalgae on coral reefs determined by remote sensing. Coral Reefs 21(3):264–274Google Scholar
  101. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR (2010b) Integrating field data with high spatial resolution multispectral satellite imagery for calibration and validation of coral reef benthic community maps. J Appl Remote Sens 4:043527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR, Udy N, Maxwell P (2009) An integrated field and remote sensing approach for mapping seagrass cover, moreton bay. Aust J Spatial Sci 54(1):45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR (2008) Evaluating eight field and remote sensing approaches for mapping the benthos of three different coral reef environments in Fiji. In: proceedings of SPIE Asia Pacific remote sensing conference—remote sensing of Inlands, coastal and oceanic water, Noumea, New Caledonia, vol 7150:G6800 17–21 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  104. Roelfsema CM, Joyce KE, Phinn SR (2006) Evaluation of benthic survey techniques for validating remotely sensed images of coral reefs. In: Proceedings 10th international coral reef symposium OkinawaGoogle Scholar
  105. Roelfsema CM, Phinn SR, Dennison WC, Dekker A, Brando V (2006b) Monitoring toxic cyano-bacteria L. majuscula in moreton bay, Australia by integrating satellite image data and field mapping. Harmful Algae 5:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rowlands GP, Purkis SJ, Riegl BM (2008) The 2005 coral-bleaching event Roatan (Honduras): use of pseudo-invariant features (PIFs) in satellite assessments. J Spatial Sci 53(1):99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sagawa T, Mikam A, Komatsu T, Kosaka N, Kosako A, Miyazaki S, Takahashi M (2008) Mapping seagrass beds using IKONOS satellite image and side scan sonar measurements: a Japanese case study. Int J Remote Sens 29(1):281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schweizer D, Armstrong RA, Posada J (2005) Remote sensing characterization of benthic habitats and submerged vegetation biomass in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela. Internat J Remote Sens 26(12):2657–2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sheppard CRC, Matheson K, Bythell JC, Murphy P, Myers CB, Blake B (1995) Habitat mapping in the Caribbean for management and conservation: use and assessment of aerial photography. Aquat Conserv-Mar Freshwater Ecosyst 5(4):277–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Scopélitis J, Andréfouët S, Phinn S, Arroyo L, Dalleau M, Cros A, Chabanet P (2010) The next step in shallow coral reef monitoring: combining remote sensing and in situ approaches. Mar Pollut Bull 60(11): 1956–1968Google Scholar
  111. Stehman SV, Czaplewski RL (1998) Design and analysis for thematic map accuracy assessment: fundamental principles. Remote Sens Environ 64:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stehman SV (1999) Basic probability sampling designs for thematic map accuracy assessment. Int J Remote Sens 20(12):2423–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stehman SV (2001b) Statistical rigor and practical utility in thematic map accuracy assessment. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 67(6):727–734Google Scholar
  114. Story M, Congalton RG (1986) Accuracy assessment: a users perspective. Photogrammetric Eng Remote Sens 52(3):397–399Google Scholar
  115. Trodd NM (1995) Uncertainty in land cover mapping for modelling land cover change. RSS95 remote sensing in action, Nottingham, 1138–1145Google Scholar
  116. Vanderstraete T, Goossens R, Ghabour TK (2006) The use of multitemporal landsat images for the change detection of the coastal zone near Hurghada. Egypt Internat J Remote Sens 27:3645–3655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wabnitz CC, Andréfouët S, Torres-Pulliza D, Muller-Karger FE, Kramer PA (2008) Regional-scale seagrass habitat mapping in the wider Caribbean region using landsat sensors: applications to conservation and ecology. Remote Sens Environ 112(2008):3455–3467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Weeks SJ, Barlow R, Roy C, Shillington FA (2006) Remotely sensed variability of temperature and chlorophyll in the southern benguela: upwelling frequency and phytoplankton response. Afr J of Mar Sci 28(34): 493–509 Google Scholar
  119. Werdell PJ, Franz BA, Bailey SW, Harding LW, Feldman GC (2007) Approach for the long-term spatial and temporal evaluation of ocean color satellite data products in a coastal environment, Art. no. 66800G. Coastal Ocean Remote Sensing. Frouin RJ, Lee Z. 6680:G6800–G6800Google Scholar
  120. Young DR, Clinton PJ, Specht DT, DeWitt TH, Lee H (2008) Monitoring the expanding distribution of nonindigenous dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in a Pacific Northwest USA estuary using high resolution digital aerial orthophotography. J Spatial Sci 53(1):87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA, Loneragan NR, Taranto T, Cameron BE (2005) Mapping and characterising subtropical estuarine landscapes using aerial photography and GIS for potential application in wildlife conservation and management. Biol Conserv 125:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biophysical Remote Sensing Group, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental ManagementThe University of QueenslandQueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations