• Sabine Andresen
  • Isabell Diehm
  • Uwe Sander
  • Holger Ziegler
Part of the Children¿s Well-Being: Indicators and Research book series (CHIR, volume 4)


In 1938, Virginia Woolf published her critical essay Three Guineas, in which she moved on to perform a much broader analysis of the political and cultural implications of women’s oppression through inadequate education, inequality and exclusion. She pointed to the institutional and financial handicaps facing girls and women and their poverty of resources. And she was especially interested in the diversity of higher education and the achievements of formal school education. To enter the professions, she argued, women had to follow different principles. One of them is the principle of poverty as modest financial independence; another, the principle of chastity as a refusal to sell one’s brain for the sake of money. From her feminist point of view, Woolf was highlighting the impact of rights, capabilities and responsibility through education. But she was also formulating the question of how education and university education need to be reformed if they are to serve as an education against war (very comprehensible in 1938). For Woolf, it was important for educational institutions to focus on the ability to empathize with others as a key competence to counter patriarchal structures.


Good Life Capability Approach Childhood Study Family Policy Critical Discourse Analysis 
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  4. Woolf, V. (1938/2008). Three Guineas. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1938)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabine Andresen
    • 1
  • Isabell Diehm
    • 2
  • Uwe Sander
    • 3
  • Holger Ziegler
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Educational ScienceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Educational ScienceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Educational ScienceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  4. 4.Faculty of Educational ScienceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

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