Role of Microorganisms in Banded Iron Formations

  • Inga Koehler
  • Kurt Konhauser
  • Andreas Kappler


Banded iron formations (BIF) represent the largest source of iron in the world. They formed throughout the Precambrian, and today are globally distributed on the remnants of the ancient cratons. The first BIF dates back to at least 3.9–3.8 billion years. Little is known about this early period in earth’s history, in particular about the presence of molecular oxygen, O2, and therefore also about the deposition mechanisms of BIF at that time.


Ferrous Iron Sulfur Isotope Band Iron Formation Ferric Hydroxide Ancient Craton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by research grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG) made to AK (KA 1736/2-1, 2-2, 4-1, and 12-1), funding from the DFG and the University of Tuebingen to IK, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada to KK. We would also like to thank Nicole Posth and Merle Eickhoff for helpful comments.


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© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Applied GeosciencesUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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