3D-Fiber Deposition for Tissue Engineering and Organ Printing Applications

Chapter

Abstract

Scaffold manufacturing technologies are moving towards systems that combine a precise control over scaffold 3-dimensional (3D) architecture with incorporation of cells in the fabrication process. A rapid prototyping technology, termed 3D-fiber deposition, generates 3D scaffolds that can satisfy these requirements, while maintaining a completely open porosity that can reduce nutrient diffusion limitations. This extrusion-based technique is effective in fabrication of porous thermoplastic scaffolds that function as instructive templates for seeded cells and can also be used to build viable tissue equivalents by layered deposition of cell-laden hydrogels. Therefore, this technology could accelerate and improve the assembly and functionality of tissue-engineered constructs.

References

  1. 1.
    Yeong WY, Chua CK, Leong KF, Chandrasekaran M (2004) Rapid prototyping in tissue engineering: challenges and potential. Trends Biotechnol 22(12):643–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moroni L, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2008) Integrating novel technologies to fabricate smart scaffolds. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 19(5):543–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malda J, Woodfield TB, van der Vloodt F, Kooy FK, Martens DE, Tramper J et al (2004) The effect of PEGT/PBT scaffold architecture on oxygen gradients in tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs. Biomaterials 25(26):5773–5780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rucker M, Laschke MW, Junker D, Carvalho C, Schramm A, Mulhaupt R et al (2006) Angiogenic and inflammatory response to biodegradable scaffolds in dorsal skinfold chambers of mice. Biomaterials 27(29):5027–5038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hollister SJ (2005) Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering. Nat Mater 4(7):518–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mironov V, Boland T, Trusk T, Forgacs G, Markwald RR (2003) Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering. Trends Biotechnol 21(4):157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Woodfield TB, Malda J, de Wijn J, Peters F, Riesle J, van Blitterswijk CA (2004) Design of porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering using a three-dimensional fiber-deposition technique. Biomaterials 25(18):4149–4161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fedorovich NE, De Wijn JR, Verbout AJ, Alblas J, Dhert WJ (2008) Three-dimensional fiber deposition of cell-laden, viable, patterned constructs for bone tissue printing. Tissue Eng A 14(1):127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Landers R, Hubner U, Schmelzeisen R, Mulhaupt R (2002) Rapid prototyping of scaffolds derived from thermoreversible hydrogels and tailored for applications in tissue engineering. Biomaterials 23:4437–4447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Landers R, Pfister A, Hubner U, John H, Schmelzeisen R, Mullhaupt R (2002) Fabrication of soft tissue engineering scaffolds by means of rapid prototyping techniques. J Mater Sci 37:3107–3116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silva NA, Salgado A, Sousa RA, Oliveira JT, Predro AJ, Almeida HL et al (2009) Development and characterization of a novel hybrid tissue engineering based scaffold for spinal cord injury repair. Tissue Eng A 16:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zein I, Hutmacher DW, Tan KC, Teoh SH (2002) Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials 23(4):1169–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Woodfield TB, Van Blitterswijk CA, De Wijn J, Sims TJ, Hollander AP, Riesle J (2005) Polymer scaffolds fabricated with pore-size gradients as a model for studying the zonal organization within tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Tissue Eng 11(9–10):1297–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moroni L, Hendriks JA, Schotel R, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2007) Design of biphasic polymeric 3-dimensional fiber deposited scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Tissue Eng 13(2):361–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schantz JT, Brandwood A, Hutmacher DW, Khor HL, Bittner K (2005) Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells in computer designed fibrin-polymer-ceramic scaffolds manufactured by fused deposition modeling. J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(9):807–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shao X, Goh JC, Hutmacher DW, Lee EH, Zigang G (2006) Repair of large articular osteochondral defects using hybrid scaffolds and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model. Tissue Eng 12(6):1539–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shao XX, Hutmacher DW, Ho ST, Goh JC, Lee EH (2006) Evaluation of a hybrid scaffold/cell construct in repair of high-load-bearing osteochondral defects in rabbits. Biomaterials 27(7):1071–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laschke MW, Rucker M, Jensen G, Carvalho C, Mulhaupt R, Gellrich NC et al (2008) Improvement of vascularization of PLGA scaffolds by inosculation of in situ-preformed functional blood vessels with the host microvasculature. Ann Surg 248(6):939–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laschke MW, Rucker M, Jensen G, Carvalho C, Mulhaupt R, Gellrich NC et al (2008) Incorporation of growth factor containing Matrigel promotes vascularization of porous PLGA scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 85(2):397–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moroni L, Poort G, Van Keulen F, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2006) Dynamic mechanical properties of 3D fiber-deposited PEOT/PBT scaffolds: An experimental and numerical analysis. J Biomed Mater Res A 78:605–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moroni L, Schotel R, Hamann D, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2008) 3D fiber-deposited electrospun integrated scaffolds enhance cartilage tissue formation. Adv Funct Mater 18(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moroni L, Lambers FM, Wilson W, van Donkelaar CC, de Wijn J, Huiskes R et al (2007) Finite element analysis of meniscal anatomical 3D scaffolds: implications for tissue engineering. Open Biomed Eng J 1:23–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moroni L, Schotel R, Sohier J, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2006) Polymer hollow fiber three-dimensional matrices with controllable cavity and shell thickness. Biomaterials 27(35):5918–5926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moroni L, Hamann D, Paoluzzi L, Pieper J, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2008) Regenerating articular tissue by converging technologies. PLoS One 3(8):e3032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martins A, Chung S, Pedro AJ, Sousa RA, Marques AP, Reis RL et al (2009) Hierarchical starch-based fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 3(1):37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yan Y, Xiong Z, Hu Y, Wang S, Zhang R, Zhang C (2003) Layered manufacturing of tissue engineering scaffolds via multi-nozzle deposition. Mater Lett 57:2623–2628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tan Q, El-Badry AM, Contaldo C, Steiner R, Hillinger S, Welti M et al (2009) The effect of perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carriers on tissue-engineered trachea. Tissue Eng A 15(9):2471–2480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhao F, Pathi P, Grayson W, Xing Q, Locke BR, Ma T (2005) Effects of oxygen transport on 3-d human mesenchymal stem cell metabolic activity in perfusion and static cultures: experiments and mathematical model. Biotechnol Prog 21(4):1269–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moroni L, Curti M, Welti M, Korom S, Weder W, De Wijn JR et al (2007) Anatomical 3D fiber-deposited scaffolds for tissue engineering: Designing a neotrachea. Tissue Eng 13(10):2483–2493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woodfield TB, Guggenheim M, von Rechenberg B, Riesle J, van Blitterswijk CA, Wedler V (2009) Rapid prototyping of anatomically shaped, tissue-engineered implants for restoring congruent articulating surfaces in small joints. Cell Prolif 42(4):485–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hutmacher DW, Ng KW, Kaps C, Sittinger M, Klaring S (2003) Elastic cartilage engineering using novel scaffold architectures in combination with a biomimetic cell carrier. Biomaterials 24(24):4445–4458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hutmacher DW, Garcia AJ (2005) Scaffold-based bone engineering by using genetically modified cells. Gene 347(1):1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoque ME, Hutmacher DW, Feng W, Li S, Huang MH, Vert M et al (2005) Fabrication using a rapid prototyping system and in vitro characterization of PEG-PCL-PLA scaffolds for tissue engineering. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 16(12):1595–1610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li JP, de Wijn JR, Van Blitterswijk CA, de Groot K (2005) Porous Ti(6)Al(4)V scaffold directly fabricating by rapid prototyping: Preparation and in vitro experiment. Biomaterials 27(8):1223–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Michna S, Wu W, Lewis JA (2005) Concentrated hydroxyapatite inks for direct-write assembly of 3-D periodic scaffolds. Biomaterials 26(28):5632–5639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smay JE, Cesarano J III, Tuttle BA, Lewis JA (2005) Directed colloidal assembly of linear and annulate lead of zirconia titanate arrays. J Am Ceram Soc 87(2):293–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hubbell JA (1996) Hydrogel systems for barriers and local drug delivery in the control of wound healing. J Control Release 39:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hubbell JA (2003) Materials science enhancing drug function. Science 300(5619):595–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fedorovich NE, Swennen I, Girones J, Moroni L, van Blitterswijk CA, Schacht E et al (2009) Evaluation of photocrosslinked lutrol hydrogel for tissue printing applications. Biomacromolecules 10(7):1689–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hoffman AS (2002) Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54(1):3–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fedorovich NE, Alblas J, de Wijn JR, Hennink WE, Verbout AJ, Dhert WJ (2007) Hydrogels as extracellular matrices for skeletal tissue engineering: state-of-the-art and novel application in organ printing. Tissue Eng 13(8):1905–1925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haines-Butterick L, Rajagopal K, Branco M, Salick D, Rughani R, Pilarz M et al (2007) Controlling hydrogelation kinetics by peptide design for three-dimensional encapsulation and injectable delivery of cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(19):7791–7796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vermonden T, Fedorovich NE, van Geemen D, Alblas J, van Nostrum CF, Dhert WJ et al (2008) Photopolymerized thermosensitive hydrogels: synthesis, degradation, and cytocompatibility. Biomacromolecules 9(3):919–926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Swennen I (2008) Polymerizable, thermosensitive hydrogels as potential drug release systems and matrices for tissue regeneration. PhD. Thesis, Ghent University, Faculty of Sciences, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ang TH, Sultana FSA, Hutmacher DW, Wong YS, Fuh JYH, Mo XM et al (2002) Fabrication of 3D chitosan-hydroxyapatitescaffolds using a robotic dispensing system. Mater Sci Eng C 20:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lam CXF, Mo XM, Teoh SH, Hutmacher DW (2002) Scaffold development using 3D printing with a strach-based polymer. Mater Sci Eng C 20:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fedorovich NE, Oudshoorn MH, van Geemen D, Hennink WE, Alblas J, Dhert WJ (2009) The effect of photopolymerization on stem cells embedded in hydrogels. Biomaterials 30(3):344–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang HJ, Zhu XD, Fan HS, Li W, Zhang XD (2009) Effect of phase composition and microstructure of calcium phosphate ceramic particles on protein adsorption. Acta Biomater 6(4):1536–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grellier M, Bordenave L, Amedee J (2009) Cell-to-cell communication between osteogenic and endothelial lineages: implications for tissue engineering. Trends Biotechnol 27(10):562–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Krenning G, van Luyn MJ, Harmsen MC (2009) Endothelial progenitor cell-based neovascularization: implications for therapy. Trends Mol Med 15(4):180–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dhiman HK, Ray AR, Panda AK (2005) Three-dimensional chitosan scaffold-based MCF-7 cell culture for the determination of the cytotoxicity of tamoxifen. Biomaterials 26(9):979–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moroni L, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2006) 3D fiber-deposited scaffolds for tissue engineering: influence of pores geometry and architecture on dynamic mechanical properties. Biomaterials 27(7):974–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute for BioMedical Technology (BMTI)University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Health and Biomedical InnovationQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations